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Table 2 Multivariable-adjusted associations between skin AF and continuous measures of vascular stiffness in the EPIC-DZD study

From: Advanced glycation end-products, measured as skin autofluorescence, associate with vascular stiffness in diabetic, pre-diabetic and normoglycemic individuals: a cross-sectional study

  Beta coefficients (95% CI) for skin AF, arbitrary units
cfPWV, m/s aoPWV, m/s aoAIx, % brAIx, % ABI
Model 1 0.41 (0.24; 0.58) 0.27 (0.16; 0.39) 0.28 (− 0.46; 1.02) 1.49 (− 0.63; 3.62) − 0.04 (− 0.05; − 0.03)
Model 2 0.38 (0.21; 0.55) 0.25 (0.14; 0.37) 1.00 (0.29; 1.70) 4.12 (2.24; 6.00) − 0.04 (− 0.05; − 0.02)
  1. N = 3535. Model 1 was adjusted for age and sex. Model 2 was additionally adjusted for BMI, waist circumference, smoking status (three categories: non-smoker, former smoker, current smoker), recreational physical activity (biking and sports, h/week), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse, prevalent conditions (prevalent heart failure, prior myocardial infarction or stroke), antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment, CRP, LDL-, HDL- and total cholesterol, triglycerides and HbA1c
  2. EPIC-DZD Sub-study of European Prospective Investigations into Cancer and Nutrition, AF autofluorescence, PWV pulse wave velocity, AIx augmentation index, ABI ankle-brachial index, ao aortic, br brachial, cf carotid-femoral