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Table 2 Results of subgroup analysis

From: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) and cardiac arrhythmias: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Outcome Subgroup Number of trials Number of participants RR (95% CI) Phetero
AF Overall 21 51,193 0.82 (0.70–0.96)  
Baseline condition DM 16 44,896 0.84 (0.71–1.00) 0.63
CKD 3 1474 0.93 (0.18–4.68)
HF 2 4823 0.65 (0.40–1.07)
ASCVD No ASCVD 18 43,114 0.79 (0.67–0.94) 0.16
ASCVD present 3 8079 1.23 (0.69–2.19)
SGLT2i agent Canagliflozin 6 16,378 0.90 (0.65–1.26) 0.39
Dapagliflozin 7 25,090 0.75 (0.61–0.91)
Empagliflozin 7 9258 1.19 (0.68–2.08)
Ertugliflozin 1 467 1.48 (0.06–36.08)
Follow-up duration  ≤ 1 year 11 4916 0.82 (0.69–0.97) 0.90
 > 1 year 10 42,677 0.82 (0.70–0.96)
Embolic stroke Overall 6 44,205 0.32 (0.12–0.85)  
Baseline condition DM 4 38,723 0.32 (0.10–1.03) 0.99
CKD 1 4401 0.25 (0.01–6.21)
HF 1 4744 0.25 (0.03–3.20)
ASCVD No ASCVD 5 37,185 0.37 (0.12–1.10) 0.53
ASCVD present 1 7020 0.17 (0.02–1.59)
SGLT2i agent Canagliflozin 2 14,543 0.29 (0.03–2.77) 0.78
Dapagliflozin 3 21,904 0.43 (0.11–1.68)
Empagliflozin 4 7758 1.19 (0.03–1.21)
Follow-up duration  ≤ 1 year 1 738 0.25 (0.01–6.21) 0.89
 > 1 year 5 43,467 0.32 (0.12–0.92)
AFL Overall 9 45,478 0.83 (0.58–1.17)  
Baseline condition DM 6 36,333 0.75 (0.52–1.09) 0.19
CKD 1 4401 1.00 (0.14–7.08)
HF 1 4744 2.66 (0.71–10.03)
ASCVD No ASCVD 6 37,439 0.91 (0.55–1.48) 0.90
ASCVD present 3 8039 0.97 (0.36–2.66)
SGLT2i agent Canagliflozin 2 14,543 1.08 (0.56–2.10) 0.95
Dapagliflozin 3 22,826 0.91 (0.28–3.00)
Empagliflozin 4 8109 1.14 (0.45–3.03)
Follow-up duration  ≤ 1 year 2 1019 0.33 (0.01–8.20) 0.56
 > 1 year 7 44,459 0.87 (0.59–1.29)
AF/AFL Overall 22 49,115 0.82 (0.71–0.95)  
Baseline condition DM 17 41,686 0.82 (0.70–0.97) 0.99
CKD 3 5606 0.83 (0.46–1.51)
HF 2 4823 0.79 (0.51–1.24)
ASCVD No ASCVD 18 40,114 0.79 (0.68–0.93) 0.16
ASCVD present 4 9001 1.16 (0.70–1.91)
SGLT2i agent Canagliflozin 6 16,378 0.94 (0.70–1.26) 0.20
Dapagliflozin 8 26,012 0.74 (0.62–0.89)
Empagliflozin 7 9258 1.21 (0.74–1.97)
Ertugliflozin 1 467 1.48 (0.06–36.08)
Follow-up duration  ≤ 1 year 12 5838 0.73 (0.31–1.71) 0.78
 > 1 year 10 42,677 0.82 (0.71–0.96)
VT Overall 7 43,963 0.73 (0.53–0.99)  
Baseline condition DM 4 34,739 0.90 (0.56–1.42) 0.50
CKD 1 2501 0.50 (0.05–5.50)
HF 2 4823 0.62 (0.41–0.95)
ASCVD No ASCVD 6 36,846 0.77 (0.56–1.06) 0.30
ASCVD present 2 7117 0.44 (0.16–1.20)
SGLT2i agent Canagliflozin 2 14,543 0.80 (0.28–2.32) 0.48
Dapagliflozin 3 22,224 0.82 (0.50–1.33)
Empagliflozin 3 7196 0.42 (0.16–1.11)
Follow-up duration  ≤ 1 year 3 496 0.98 (0.10–9.29) 0.79
 > 1 year 5 43,647 0.72 (0.53–0.99)
Cardiac arrest Overall 7 44,751 0.83 (0.61–1.14)  
Baseline condition DM 4 34,868 0.74 (0.42–1.30) 0.93
CKD 2 5139 0.72 (0.25–2.08)
HF 1 4744 0.90 (0.37–2.21)
ASCVD No ASCVD 6 37,731 0.92 (0.66–1.30) 0.12
ASCVD present 1 7020 0.46 (0.20–1.03)
SGLT2i agent Canagliflozin 2 14,543 0.85 (0.46–1.52) 0.44
Dapagliflozin 3 22,450 0.88 (0.44–1.75)
Empagliflozin 2 7758 0.48 (0.22–1.04)
Follow-up duration  ≤ 1 year 1 738 0.76 (0.05–12.13) 0.97
 > 1 year 6 44,013 0.81 (0.56–1.16)
  1. AF atrial fibrillation, AFL atrial flutter, VT ventricular tachycardia, RR risk ratio, 95% CI 95% confidence interval, Phetero P-value for between-subgroup heterogeneity, DM diabetes mellitus, CKD chronic kidney disease, HF heart failure, ASCVD atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease