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Table 2 Differences within and between sexes in mean differences in microvascular complications and retinal measures according to HbA1c, fasting glucose and 2-h postload glucose

From: Sex differences in the association of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes with microvascular complications and function: The Maastricht Study

  HbA1c (%) β, OR or GMR (95%-CI) Fasting glucose (mmol/l) β, OR or GMR (95%-CI) 2-h postload glucose (mmol/l) β, OR or GMR (95%-CI) Sex difference β, WM-OR or WM-GMR (95% CI)
Women Men Women Men Women Men HbA1c Fasting glucose 2-h postload glucose
Nephropathy* n = 2737 (Yes vs. no) 1.37 (1.05;1.79) 1.39 (1.18;1.64) 1.12 (0.96;1.32) 1.15 (1.06;1.25) 1.04 (0.98;1.11) 1.03 (0.99;1.08) 0.99 (0.72;1.35) 0.97 (0.82;1.16) 1.01 (0.94;1.09)
Albuminuria (mg/24 h) n = 2566 1.12 (1.03;1.22) 1.20 (1.14;1.27) 1.06 (1.01;1.11) 1.10 (1.07;1.13) 1.01 (0.99;1.02) 1.02 (1.01;1.03) 0.93 (0.84;1.03) 0.96 (0.91;1.02) 0.99 (0.97;1.01)
Estimated glomerular filtration rate (ml/min/1.73m2) n = 2713 − 0.10 (− 1.22;1.02) 0.14 (− 0.65;0.92) 0.66 (0.01;1.31) 0.39 (− 0.02;0.80) 0.17 (− 0.04;0.39) 0.13 (− 0.04;0.31) − 0.24 (− 1.60;1.13) 0.27 (− 0.50;1.03) 0.04 (− 0.24;0.32)
Sensory neuropathy* n = 2729 (Yes vs. no) 1.31 (1.04;1.63) 1.41 (1.21;1.64) 1.05 (0.93;1.19) 1.12 (1.03;1.21) 1.01 (0.96;1.06) 1.08 (1.04;1.13) 0.93 (0.71;1.22) 0.94 (0.81;1.09) 0.93 •• (0.88;0.99)
Neuropathic pain* n = 2692 (Yes vs. no) 1.32 (1.03;1.69) 1.39 (1.16;1.66) 1.08 (0.94;1.23) 1.11 (1.01;1.22) 0.99 (0.93;1.05) 1.09 (1.04;1.15) 0.95 (0.70;1.29) 0.97 (0.82;1.14) 0.90 •• (0.84;0.98)
Impaired vibration perception* n = 2384 Unilateral vs. no impaired vibration perception 1.04 (0.64;1.69) 1.16 (0.91;1.48) 0.95 (0.71;1.26) 1.06 (0.94;1.20) 1.05 (0.96;1.14) 1.04 (0.98;1.10) 0.89 (0.52;1.54) 0.89 (0.65;1.22) 1.01 (0.91;1.11)
Bilateral vs. no impaired vibration perception 1.84 (1.27;2.65) 1.42 (1.13;1.79) 1.32 (1.06;1.65) 1.12 (1.00;1.26) 1.05 (0.94;1.17) 1.10 (1.03;1.17) 1.29 (0.84;1.99) 1.18 (0.92;1.52) 0.95 (0.84;1.08)
Mean neurothesiometer outcome on the right and left first toe (Volt) n = 2392 1.07 (1.03;1.12) 1.08 (1.05;1.12) 1.02 (0.99;1.04) 1.03 (1.02;1.05) 1.00 (1.00;1.01) 1.01 (1.00;1.02) 0.99 (0.94;1.04) 0.98 (0.96;1.01) 1.00 (0.99;1.01)
Central retinal arteriolar equivalent (µm) n = 2394 − 0.15 (− 1.94;1.64) 1.51 (0.20;2.82) − 0.28 (− 1.32;0.75) 0.31 (− 0.36;0.99) − 0.23 (− 0.59;0.13) 0.32 (0.02;0.63) − 1.66 (− 3.88;0.56) − 0.59 (− 1.83;0.64) − 0.55 •• (− 1.02;− 0.08)
Central retinal venular equivalent (µm) n = 2394 1.41 (− 1.42;4.24) 1.24 (− 0.83;3.31) 0.39 (− 1.24;2.03) − 0.23 (− 1.30;0.84) − 0.28 (− 0.85;0.29) 0.12 (− 0.36;0.60) 0.17 (− 3.34;3.68) 0.63 (− 1.33;2.58) − 0.40 (− 1.14;0.35)
Retinal arteriolar dilatation (%) n = 1878 − 0.35 (− 0.63;− 0.07) − 0.41 (− 0.62;− 0.20) − 0.25 (− 0.40;− 0.09) − 0.17 (− 0.28;− 0.07) 0.00 (− 0.06;0.06) − 0.05 (− 0.10;0.00) 0.07 (− 0.28;0.42) − 0.08 (− 0.26;0.11) 0.05 (− 0.02;0.13)
Retinal venular dilatation (%) n = 1908 − 0.02 (− 0.25;0.21) − 0.11 (− 0.29;0.06) 0.00 (− 0.13;0.12) − 0.06 (− 0.14;0.03) 0.03 (− 0.02;0.08) 0.00 (− 0.04;0.04) 0.09 (− 0.19;0.38) 0.05 (− 0.10;0.20) 0.03 (− 0.03;0.09)
  1. Sex-specific differences (main model: model 2) are expressed as linear or logistic regression coefficients (95%-CI) of the dependent variables, which indicate mean differences (βs), odds ratios (ORs) or geometric mean ratios (GMRs) in microvascular complications and retinal measures per one percent point increase in HbA1c or per one mmol/l increase in fasting glucose or 2-h postload glucose.
  2. *ORs. † GMRs
  3. Differences between sexes (main model: model 2) are expressed as linear or logistic regression coefficients (95%-CI) of the interaction terms sex*HbA1c, sex*fasting glucose and sex*2-h postload glucose, which indicate differences between women and men in mean differences (βs), women to men ratio of odds ratios (WM-ORs) or women to men ratio of geometric mean ratios (WM-GMRs) in microvascular complications and retinal measures per one percent point increase in HbA1c or per one mmol/l increase in fasting glucose or 2-h postload glucose. *WM-ORs. †WM-GMRs. Statistically significant differences between the sexes are typed in bold. ••p value < 0.05 • p value < 0.10