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Table 1 Study population characteristics according to sex and glucose metabolism status

From: Sex differences in the association of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes with microvascular complications and function: The Maastricht Study

  Women Men
NGM n = 1103 Prediabetes n = 236 Type 2 diabetes n = 315 NGM n = 821 Prediabetes n = 275 Type 2 diabetes n = 660
Demographics
Age (years) 57.3 ± 8.0 60.9 ± 7.9 62.0 ± 8.1 58.7 ± 8.4 62.1 ± 7.2 63.0 ± 7.5
Educational level
  Low, N (%) 338 (31.2) 91 (39.9) 181 (59.0) 168 (20.7) 84 (31.1) 258 (40.5)
  Middle, N (%) 295 (27.2) 69 (30.3) 77 (25.1) 236 (29.1) 79 (29.3) 185 (29.0)
  High, N (%) 451 (41.6) 68 (29.8) 49 (16.0) 408 (50.2) 107 (39.6) 194 (30.5)
Postmenopausal women, N (%) 810 (75.6) 186 (83.0) 265 (87.5) NA NA NA
 Hormone replacement therapy, N (%) 27 (2.5) 3 (1.3) 5 (1.6) NA NA NA
Clinical characteristics
 Fasting glucose (mmol/l) 5.1 [4.8–5.4] 5.7 [5.3–6.2] 7.3 [6.4–8.1] 5.3 [5.0–5.6] 6.1 [5.7–6.4] 7.6 [6.9–8.8]
 2-h postload glucose (mmol/l)a 5.4 [4.6–6.2] 8.7 [7.9–9.5] 14.4 [11.8–17.5] 5.4 [4.5–6.2] 8.1 [6.4–9.2] 14.4 [11.9–16.8]
 HbA1c (%) 5.5 ± 0.3 5.7 ± 0.4 6.8 ± 1.0 5.4 ± 0.3 5.7 ± 0.4 7.0 ± 1.1
 HbA1c (mmol/mol) 36.1 ± 3.7 38.8 ± 4.2 51.0 ± 11.2 36.0 ± 3.7 38.8 ± 4.7 52.7 ± 11.8
 Fasting insulin (pmol/l) 50.1 [36.4–68.6] 71.9 [46.9–106.3] 87.5 [55.8–141.6] 57.8 [41.7–81.0] 72.5 [53.3–113.8] 83.9 [49.4–130.0]
 Glucose-lowering medication, N (%) NA NA 237 (75.2) NA NA 529 (80.2)
 Diabetes duration (years) NA NA 4.0 [1.0;9.0] NA NA 5.0 [2.0;12.0]
Cardiovascular risk factors
 History of CVD, N (%) 130 (12.0) 29 (12.4) 67 (22.0) 94 (11.5) 42 (15.4) 199 (31.1)
 BMI (kg/m2) 25.1 ± 3.8 27.5 ± 4.7 30.4 ± 5.7 26.2 ± 3.2 28.0 ± 3.7 29.6 ± 4.6
 Waist circumference (cm) 86.1 ± 10.2 93.2 ± 12.5 101.7 ± 14.4 96.3 ± 9.5 102.3 ± 10.5 107.8 ± 12.6
 Office SBP (mmHg) 126.6 ± 16.9 134.2 ± 16.6 139.1 ± 17.6 136.1 ± 16.2 140.1 ± 16.9 144.0 ± 18.1
 Office DBP (mmHg) 73.0 ± 9.5 75.7 ± 9.1 75.4 ± 9.0 78.2 ± 9.6 80.0 ± 9.5 78.1 ± 9.8
 Antihypertensive medication use, N (%) 209 (18.9) 100 (42.4) 224 (71.1) 220 (26.8) 134 (48.7) 482 (73.0)
 Total/HDL cholesterol ratio 3.3 ± 1.0 3.7 ± 1.2 3.5 ± 1.1 4.0 ± 1.3 4.0 ± 1.2 3.8 ± 1.1
 Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.02 [0.77–1.36] 1.34 [1.02–1.82] 1.54 [1.11–2.12] 1.13 [0.85–1.57] 1.35 [1.01–1.84] 1.53 [1.13–2.14]
 Lipid-modifying medication use, N (%) 145 (13.1) 67 (28.4) 229 (72.7) 181 (22.0) 110 (40.0) 499 (75.6)
Smoking
  Never, N (%) 434 (39.8) 81 (34.8) 115 (37.6) 310 (37.9) 68 (25.0) 154 (24.0)
  Former, N (%) 523 (47.9) 121 (51.9) 142 (46.4) 396 (48.5) 171 (62.9) 385 (60.0)
  Current, N (%) 134 (12.3) 31 (13.3) 49 (16.0) 111 (13.6) 33 (12.1) 103 (16.0)
Alcohol use
  None, N (%) 192 (17.6) 56 (23.9) 154 (50.2) 70 (8.6) 24 (8.8) 135 (21.0)
  Low, N (%) 568 (52.1) 105 (44.9) 109 (35.5) 550 (67.3) 165 (60.7) 369 (57.4)
  High, N (%) 330 (30.3) 73 (31.2) 44 (14.3) 197 (24.1) 83 (30.5) 139 (21.6)
Physical activity
  Total self-reported physical activity (hours/week) 16.3 ± 8.1 16.1 ± 7.4 14.0 ± 7.7 13.3 ± 8.0 12.2 ± 7.8 11.3 ± 7.6
Dutch Healthy Diet Index 88.43 ± 13.66 86.93 ± 13.99 84.71 ± 13.91 80.49 ± 14.45 78.22 ± 14.95 78.03 ± 14.04
Microvascular complications and retinal measures
 Presence of microvascular diseaseb, N (%) 91 (11.4) 27 (15.1) 84 (32.8) 99 (16.5) 56 (28.3) 272 (51.5)
Nephropathy c 45 (4.1) 14 (5.9) 57 (18.2) 57 (6.9) 32 (11.6) 170 (25.8)
 eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 20 (1.8) 6 (2.6) 30 (9.6) 13 (1.6) 14 (5.1) 60 (9.2)
 eGRF (ml/min/1.73 m2) 90.07 ± 13.27 87.17 ± 14.22 84.17 ± 17.57 90.38 ± 13.26 86.15 ± 14.10 84.96 ± 17.14
 Albuminuria (> 30 mg urinary albumin excretion per 24 h) 27 (2.6) 10 (4.6) 35 (12.4) 51 (6.7) 22 (8.6) 129 (21.7)
 Albumin excretion (mg/24 h) 5.84 [3.67–9.35] 5.86 [3.87–10.01] 7.56 [4.76–15.32] 6.18 [3.76–10.25] 7.20 [4.47–11.35] 11.19 [6.00–25.21]
 History of kidney transplantation, N (%) 2 (0.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
 History of hemodialysis, N (%) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Sensory neuropathy d 136 (12.4) 47 (20.2) 92 (29.4) 96 (11.7) 43 (15.6) 222 (34.3)
 Neuropathic pain, N (%) 74 (6.9) 28 (12.3) 59 (20.3) 45 (5.5) 17 (6.3) 112 (18.2)
 Impaired unilateral vibration perception, N (%) 33 (3.4) 10 (5.1) 22 (7.8) 35 (4.9) 17 (7.5) 65 (11.7)
 Impaired bilateral vibration perception, N (%) 20 (2.1) 7 (3.5) 15 (5.3) 20 (2.8) 9 (3.9) 70 (12.6)
 Mean neurothesiometer outcome on the right and left first toe (Volt) 8.75 (6.25;12.60) 9.85 (7.00;14.25) 10.45 (7.74;16.35) 11.48 (7.40;16.58) 12.20 (8.95;18.95) 15.40 (9.85;23.43)
Retinopathy 1 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 9 (3.1) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.4) 35 (5.7)
Retinal microvasculature vessel diameters
  Central retinal arteriolar equivalent (µm) 145.44 ± 19.72 144.63 ± 20.67 144.49 ± 19.95 139.05 ± 20.13 138.31 ± 19.36 140.44 ± 21.52
  Central retinal venular equivalent (µm) 216.44 ± 29.71 219.77 ± 32.92 218.54 ± 31.29 210.07 ± 31.51 212.91 ± 29.80 214.36 ± 33.06
Flicker light-induced arteriolar and venular dilation
  Flicker light-induced arteriolar dilation (%) 3.32 ± 2.81 2.84 ± 2.68 2.51 ± 2.69 3.46 ± 2.84 3.14 ± 2.80 2.20 ± 2.60
  Flicker light-induced venular dilation (%) 4.05 ± 2.17 4.09 ± 2.22 3.86 ± 2.45 3.82 ± 2.17 4.01 ± 2.23 3.49 ± 2.18
  1. T2DM: type 2 diabetes; CVD: cardiovascular disease. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation, median [interquartile range], or n (%), as appropriate
  2. amissing data in 25% of individuals with T2DM per protocol
  3. bMicrovascular disease was defined as having retinopathy in one or both eyes, an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, albuminuria, and/or an impaired vibration perception of one or both first toes
  4. cNephropathy was defined as an eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, albuminuria, or both; and/or a self-reported medical history of kidney transplantation or dialysis
  5. dDiabetic sensory neuropathy was defined as having neuropathic pain and/or, impaired uni- or bilateral vibration perception