Skip to main content

Table 3 Summary of the studies showing an effect of body weight, uric acid, and heart rate variability on the development of complications in patients with diabetes

From: Variability of risk factors and diabetes complications

Risk factor Type of variability assessed Short or long term variability Metrics used Type of study Sample size Significantly associated outcomes Follow-up length References
Body weight Visit-to-visit Long-term Average successive variability Post-hoc analysis of 3 trials 6408 Composite of cardiovascular events 3.9/4/4.9 years [29]
Post-hoc analysis of trial 10251 MACE, heart failure, death, and microvascular events 3.5 years [30]
Coefficient of variation Observational cohort 1319 All-cause mortality in patients > 65 years 10 years [31]
Uric acid Visit-to-visit Long-term Standard deviation Retrospective cohort study 10163 eGRF decline 24 months [36]
Heart rate 24-h ECG Holter, expiration/inspiration (E/I) ratio during deep breathing, acceleration index (AI) of R-R interval in response to head-up tilt Short-term Low frequency Observational cohort 61 Intima-media thickness 8 years [41]
Supine deep breathing 12-lead electrocardiograms Short-term Standard deviation of consecutive RR intervals Observational cohort 1416 Coronary artery calcium 6.0 ± 0.5 years [42]
Coefficient of variance for 100 R–R intervals Observational cohort 8917 (3089 with diabetes) Sudden cardiac death 5.2 years [43]
24-h ECG Holter Short-term Standard deviation of NN intervals Observational cohort 240 All-cause mortality 15.5 years [44]