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Table 1 Summary of the studies showing an effect of blood pressure variability on the development of complications in patients with diabetes

From: Variability of risk factors and diabetes complications

Risk factor Type of variability assessed Short or long term variability Metrics used Type of study Sample size Significantly associated outcomes Follow-up length References
Systolic blood pressure Visit-to-visit Long-term Standard deviation Post-hoc analysis of trial 9114 MACE; microvascular outomes 2.4 years [10]
Post-hoc analysis of trial 9114 MACE, renal events, or death; 7.6 years [11]
Retrospective cohort study 124105 Newly developed CVD; all-cause mortality 39.5 months [12]
Retrospective cohort study 10163 Risk of CVD 24 months [13]
Prospective cohort study 632 MACE 11.3 years [14]
Post-hoc analysis of 2 trials 2739 Composite renal outcome 2.6/3.4 years [16]
Retrospective cohort study 30851 Composite renal outcome 4 years [17]
Coefficient of variation Post-hoc analysis of 2 trials 9383 plus 1550 Heart failure development 56.6 months/59.5 months [15]
Retrospective cohort study 10163 Risk of CVD 24 months [13]
Retrospective cohort study 30851 Composite renal outcome 4 years [17]
Variation independent of mean Retrospective cohort study 10163 Risk of CVD 24 months [13]
Average real variability Retrospective cohort study 10163 risk of CVD 24 months [13]
Post-hoc analysis of 2 trials 9383 plus 1550 Heart failure related event 56.6 months/59.5 months [15]
Retrospective cohort study 30851 Composite renal outcome 4 years [17]
Successive variability of measurements Retrospective cohort study 10163 Risk of CVD 24 months [13]
Diastolic blood pressure Visit-to-visit Long-term Coefficient of variation AND Average real variability Post-hoc analysis of 2 trials 9383 plus 1550 Heart failure development 56.6 months/59.5 months [15]