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Table 1 Characteristics of study cohort

From: Treatment with direct oral anticoagulants or warfarin and the risk for incident diabetes among patients with atrial fibrillation: a population‐based cohort study

  Warfarin Apixaban Dabigatran Rivaroxaban Maximum pairwise standardized difference
Unweighted Weighted
Subjects, n 3454 3335 4210 2689   
Age at index date, mean (sd) 72.9 (12.2) 78.1 (10.8) 74.4 (10.3) 74.9 (10.8) 0.47 0.06
Female, n (%) 1551 (44.9) 1699 (50.9) 2018 (47.9) 1282 (47.7) 0.12 0.03
Calendar year of index date, n (%)
 2014 704 (20.4) 90 (2.7) 403 (9.6) 371 (13.8) 0.64 0.1
 2015 727 (21.0) 256 (7.7) 578 (13.7) 525 (19.5) 0.39 0.05
 2016 670 (19.4) 486 (14.6) 785 (18.6) 621 (23.1) 0.22 0.01
 2017 630 (18.2) 886 (26.6) 1045 (24.8) 547 (20.3) 0.19 0.03
 2018 628 (18.2) 1163 (34.9) 1174 (27.9) 524 (19.5) 0.37 0.04
 2019 95 (2.8) 454 (13.6) 225 (5.3) 101 (3.8) 0.41 0.05
Dispensing Institution by district, n (%)
 Hong Kong East 365 (10.6) 413 (12.4) 454 (10.8) 336 (12.5) 0.06 0.02
 Hong Kong West 321 (9.3) 490 (14.7) 302 (7.2) 317 (11.8) 0.24 0.03
 Kowloon Central 661 (19.1) 592 (17.8) 904 (21.5) 395 (14.7) 0.17 0.02
 Kowloon East 399 (11.6) 284 (8.5) 370 (8.8) 703 (26.1) 0.52 0.04
 Kowloon West 582 (16.9) 554 (16.6) 777 (18.5) 393 (14.6) 0.1 0.02
 New Territories East 625 (18.1) 689 (20.7) 722 (17.1) 333 (12.4) 0.22 0.03
 New Territories West 501 (14.5) 313 ( 9.4) 681 (16.2) 212 (7.9) 0.26 0.04
Medical history, n (%)
 Congestive heart failure 741 (21.5) 636 (19.1) 576 (13.7) 413 (15.4) 0.21 0.02
 Stroke 525 (15.2) 706 (21.2) 797 (18.9) 460 (17.1) 0.15 0.03
 COPD 313 (9.1) 304 (9.1) 338 (8.0) 215 (8.0) 0.04 0.04
 Fall 566 (16.4) 637 (19.1) 617 (14.7) 420 (15.6) 0.12 0.03
 Fracture 251 (7.3) 299 ( 9.0) 282 (6.7) 214 (8.0) 0.09 0.02
 Chronic liver disease 23 (0.7) 16 (0.5) 14 (0.3) 4 (0.1) 0.08 0.04
 Osteoporosis 37 (1.1) 65 (1.9) 51 (1.2) 41 (1.5) 0.07 0.004
 Rheumatoid arthritis 29 (0.8) 39 (1.2) 36 (0.9) 22 (0.8) 0.04 0.03
 Chronic kidney disease 187 (5.4) 79 (2.4) 42 (1.0) 49 ( 1.8) 0.28 0.05
Medication record in the past 90 days, n (%)
 ACE inhibitors 1504 (43.5) 1455 (43.6) 1529 (36.3) 1088 (40.5) 0.15 0.02
 Beta blockers 2019 (58.5) 1959 (58.7) 2490 (59.1) 1649 (61.3) 0.06 0.02
 Proton pump inhibitors 1169 (33.8) 1396 (41.9) 1321 (31.4) 877 (32.6) 0.22 0.04
 Systemic corticosteroids 377 (10.9) 324 ( 9.7) 341 (8.1) 222 (8.3) 0.1 0.05
 Anti-depressants 162 (4.7) 202 (6.1) 199 (4.7) 128 (4.8) 0.06 0.004
  1. COPD: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease