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Table 1 Characteristics of participants with and without metabolic syndrome

From: The prediction of Metabolic Syndrome alterations is improved by combining waist circumference and handgrip strength measurements compared to either alone

Variables Total Without MetS (n %)
N = 2910
With MetS (n %)
N = 2116
(n) Female Male Female Male
Total 5026 1699 (33.8) 1211 (24.1) 1516 (30.2) 600 (11.9)
Age (years)
 < 50 2434 1013 (41.6) 604 (24.8) 572 (23.5) 245 (10.1)
 >  = 50 2592 686 (26.5) 607 (23.4) 944 (36.4) 355 (13.7)
Income (USD)
High (> 700) 1563 558 (35.7) 318 (20.3) 445 (28.5) 242 (15.5)
Middle (350–700) 1720 567 (33) 438 (25.5) 505 (29.4) 210 (12.2)
Low (< 350) 1743 574 (32.9) 455 (26.1) 566 (32.5) 148 (8.5)
Education
College/University 744 315 (42.3) 158 (21.2) 161 (21.6) 110 (14.8)
High school 974 384 (39.4) 195 (20) 281 (28.9) 114 (11.7)
None, primary, or unknown 3308 1000 (30.2) 858 (25.9) 1074 (32.5) 376 (11.4)
Location
Rural 2789 831 (29.8) 808 (29) 826 (29.6) 324 (11.6)
Urban 2237 868 (38.8) 403 (18) 690 (30.8) 276 (12.3)
Alcohol use
Never 2742 1213 (44.2) 316 (11.5) 1061 (38.7) 152 (5.5)
Before 789 180 (22.8) 248 (31.4) 201 (25.5) 160 (20.3)
Actual 1495 306 (20.5) 647 (43.3) 254 (17) 288 (19.3)
Tobacco use
Never 3304 1318 (39.9) 531 (16.1) 1157 (35) 298 (9)
Before 1035 214 (20.7) 387 (37.4) 233 (22.5) 201 (19.4)
Actual 687 167 (24.3) 293 (42.6) 126 (18.3) 101 (14.7)
Physical activity
Low 615 193 (31.4) 148 (24.1) 181 (29.4) 93 (15.1)
Moderate 1873 669 (35.7) 361 (19.3) 635 (33.9) 208 (11.1)
High 2538 837 (33) 702 (27.7) 700 (27.6) 299 (11.8)
BMI (kg/m2)
Tertile 1 2160 1002 (46.4) 845 (39.1) 231 (10.7) 82 (3.8)
Tertile 2 1981 545 (27.5) 324 (16.4) 766 (38.7) 346 (17.5)
Tertile 3 885 152 (17.2) 42 (4.7) 519 (58.6) 172 (19.4)
Waist circumference (cm)
Tertile 1 1696 1095 (64.6) 601 (35.4) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Tertile 2 1625 369 (22.7) 486 (29.9) 658 (40.5) 112 (6.9)
Tertile 3 1705 235 (13.8) 124 (7.3) 858 (50.3) 488 (28.6)
Waist/Hip ratio
Tertile 1 1659 863 (52) 549 (33.1) 198 (11.9) 49 (3)
Tertile 2 1658 539 (32.5) 409 (24.7) 522 (31.5) 188 (11.3)
Tertile 3 1709 297 (17.4) 253 (14.8) 796 (46.6) 363 (21.2)
Handgrip strength (kg)
Tertile 3 1655 601 (36.3) 366 (22.1) 477 (28.8) 211 (12.7)
Tertile 2 1595 509 (31.9) 409 (25.6) 471 (29.5) 206 (12.9)
Tertile 1 1776 589 (33.2) 436 (24.5) 568 (32.0) 183 (10.3)
Handgrip strength/Bodyweight
Tertile 3 1705 756 (44.3) 508 (29.8) 333 (19.5) 108 (6.3)
Tertile 2 1662 555 (33.4) 402 (24.2) 510 (30.7) 195 (11.7)
Tertile 1 1659 388 (23.4) 301 (18.1) 673 (40.6) 297 (17.9)
  1. MetS = Metabolic syndrome, BMI = body mass index, Waist/hip = Waist to hip ratio (W/H), HGS/BW = handgrip strength divided by bodyweight. T1 = Tertile 1, T2 = Tertile 2, T3 = Tertile 3
  2. Reference values for each tertile of the anthropometric variables (F = female, M = male)
  3. BMI (F): T1: 22.32 [15.82–25.00]; T2 27.29 [25.00–30.00]; T3 33.65 [30.01–58.37] BMI (M): T1 22.29 [16.22–24.98]; T2 27.18 [25.00–29.93]; T3 32.76 [30.00–58.03]. WC (F): T1 72.52 [42.00–79.00]; T2 83.89 [79.05–88.40]; T3 96.49 [88.50–143.80] WC (M): T1 76.66 [53.85–83]; T2 87.63 [83.05–92.00]; T3 100.24 [92.05–138.00]
  4. W/H (F): T1 0.77 [0.42–0.82]; T2 0.85 [0.82–0.88]; T3 0.93 [0.88–2.22] W/H (M): T1 0.86 [0.53–0.90]; T2 0.93 [0.9–0.96]; T3 1.02 [0.96–2.38] Handgrip (F): T1 15.9 [7.70–19.30]; T2 21.5 [19.70–23.70]; T3 29.5 [24.0–83.3] Handgrip (M): T1 24.58 [8.00–30.0]; T2 34.03 [30.33–38]; T3 44.71 [38.3–90.0] HGS/BW (F): T1 0.24 [0.12–0.30]; T2 0.34 [0.30–0.39]; T3 0.48 [0.39–1.59] HGS/BW (M): T1 0.35 [0.11–0.43]; T2 0.49 [0.43–0.54]; T3 0.65 [0.54–1.76]