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Table 1 Comparison of descriptive data between young people with type 1 diabetes mellitus and apparently healthy peers without diabetes

From: Association between physical activity level and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents living with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study

  T1DM (n = 48) Peers without diabetes (n = 19)   
  Mean SD Mean SD p Adjusted p
Sex (male/ female) (%) 37.5/62.5   42.1/57.9   0.129  
Pubertal stage (n)      0.543  
Stage 1 (Not started) 18   7    
Stage 2 (Barely started) 8 1  
Stage 3 (Definitely underway) 12 6  
Stage 4 (Seems completed) 5 1  
Stage 5 (Completed) 5 4  
Ages (y) 14.02 2.89 13.58 3.46 0.601  
Body mass (kg) 49.48 12.56 52.34 15.45 0.452  
Height (m) 1.60 0.13 1.59 0.13 0.772  
BMI (kg∙m−2) 18.97 3.10 20.38 3.32 0.119  
BMI z-score − 0.27 1.16 0.50 1.01 0.018*  
Body fat (%) 29.28 9.54 28.42 6.61 0.765 0.084
Waist circumference (cm) 67.63 7.96 73.65 8.22 0.055 0.151
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 106.07 16.72 107.07 15.45 0.837 0.778
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 65.24 11.65 65.75 9.88 0.878 0.821
Total cholesterol (mmol∙L−1) 4.03 0.81 3.14 0.67 0.001* 0.001
HDL-C (mmol∙L−1) 1.48 0.28 1.29 0.42 0.078 0.184
LDL-C (mmol∙L−1) 2.31 0.72 1.74 0.38 0.005* 0.008
Triglycerides (mmol∙L−1) 0.89 0.31 0.60 0.40 0.012* 0.007
Estimated VO2max (mL∙kg−1∙min−1) 35.48 8.72 44.43 8.29 0.003* 0.003
METs (kcal∙h−1∙kg−1)‡ 2.09 0.41 2.41 0.60 0.066 0.075
Physical activity counts (CPM)‡ 346.87 101.97 451.01 133.52 0.004* 0.033
Light physical activity (min∙day−1)‡ 335.93 120.16 449.33 89.55 0.002* 0.003
Percentage of time spent in Sedentary behaviour (%)‡ 36.34 11.04 28.86 12.56 0.04* 0.095
  1. Data are presented as means and standard deviation (SD)
  2. T1DM type 1 diabetes mellitus, n number, y year, BMI body mass index, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, VO2max maximal aerobic power, METs metabolic equivalents, CPM counts-per-minute, adjusted p ANCOVA adjusted for BMI z-score
  3. *Statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between T1DM and apparently healthy peers without diabetes
  4. ‡Sixteen of 19 apparently healthy participants not living with diabetes and 40 of 48 participants with T1DM had valid physical activity data