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Table 2 Results of multivariate Cox regression analyses for the independent predictors of incidence/progression of peripheral artery disease

From: Traditional and non-traditional risk factors for peripheral artery disease development/progression in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Rio de Janeiro type 2 diabetes cohort study

Independent covariates Hazard ratio 95% CI p-value
Baseline variables
 Model 1:
  Age (1 year increase) 1.03 1.01–1.06 0.017
  Sex (male) 1.45 0.90–2.32 0.12
  Diabetes duration (1 year increase) 1.03 1.00–1.06 0.037
  Microvascular complications (present/absent) 1.78 1.00–3.15 0.047
  HbA1c (1% increase) 1.19 1.06–1.33 0.004
  Office SBP (10 mmHg increase) 1.08 0.99–1.18 0.078
C-statistic = 0.707 (0.653–0.761)    
 Model 2:
  Age (1 year increase) 1.04 1.01–1.07 0.005
  Sex (male) 1.64 1.02–2.65 0.043
  Diabetes duration (1 year increase) 1.04 1.01–1.07 0.016
  Microvascular complications (present/absent) 1.71 0.97–3.03 0.064
  HbA1c (1% increase) 1.15 1.02–1.29 0.022
  24-h SBP (10 mmHg increase) 1.30 1.13–1.49 < 0.001
C-statistic = 0.732 (0.682–0.782)*    
Cumulative mean values until 2nd ABI measurement or occurrence of a hard outcome
 Model 3:
  Age (1 year increase) 1.02 1.00–1.05 0.10
  Sex (male) 1.68 1.03–2.75 0.038
  Diabetes duration (1 year increase) 1.04 1.01–1.07 0.005
  Macrovascular complications (present/absent) 1.72 0.98–3.01 0.057
  Microvascular complications (present/absent) 2.00 1.12–3.57 0.019
  Mean office SBP (10 mmHg increase) 1.31 1.12–1.53 0.001
  Mean LDL-cholesterol (10 mg/dL increase) 1.15 1.02–1.29 0.018
C-statistic = 0.722 (0.667–0.777)    
  1. Candidate variables to enter the baseline models were age, sex, BMI, diabetes duration, smoking status, physical activity, diabetic treatment (metformin and insulin), anti-hypertensive treatment (number and classes of drugs), baseline office (Model 1) and ambulatory (Model 2) systolic and diastolic BPs, macrovascular and microvascular complications at baseline, baseline HbA1c, serum lipids (HDL- and LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides), use of statins and aspirin, and C-reactive protein. In the cumulative mean values model (Model 3), baseline office BPs, HbA1c and serum lipids were substituted for their respective cumulative mean values until 2nd ABI measurement or the occurrence of any hard outcome. Age, sex, and baseline ABI were included in all models regardless of their significance
  2. CI confidence interval, SBP systolic blood pressure, LDL low-density lipoprotein
  3. *Significant (p < 0.05) increase in C-statistic in relation to baseline Model 1