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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of all diabetic patients and divided according to the absence or presence of incidence/progression of peripheral artery disease (incidence defined as new ABI ≤ 0.90, and progression as a decrease in ABI > 0.15 in those with a basal ABI ≤ 0.90, or any lower limb revascularization procedure, any amputation above the ankle and death from PAD)

From: Traditional and non-traditional risk factors for peripheral artery disease development/progression in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Rio de Janeiro type 2 diabetes cohort study

Characteristics All patients (n = 681) Patients without incidence/progression of PAD (n = 604) Patients with incidence/progression of PAD (n = 77) p-value
Age (years) 59.9 (9.6) 59.6 (9.7) 62.6 (8.4) 0.005
Male sex (%) 39.7 38.7 43.4 0.25
Body mass index (kg/m2) 29.7 (4.8) 29.8 (4.9) 29.1 (4.7) 0.23
Smoking, current/past (%) 44.8 43.5 55.3 0.066
Physical activity (% active) 22.3 22.6 19.7 0.56
Diabetes duration (years) 8 (3–15) 8 (3–15) 11 (6–20) < 0.001
Chronic diabetic complications (%)
 Cerebrovascular disease 9.0 8.9 9.2 0.93
 Coronary artery disease 15.3 14.7 19.7 0.30
 Retinopathy 32.6 30.7 47.4 0.004
 Nephropathy 31.5 29.1 50.0 < 0.001
 Peripheral neuropathy 29 26.5 50.0 < 0.001
Diabetes treatment (%)
 Metformin 88.1 89.1 80.3 0.037
 Sulfonylureas 42.9 42.6 44.7 0.73
 Insulin 48.5 47.6 55.3 0.23
 Aspirin 90.0 88.9 98.7 0.007
Dyslipidemia (%) 87.4 87.1 89.5 0.55
 Statins use (%) 77.2 77.4 76.3 0.88
Arterial hypertension (%) 86.5 86.0 90.8 0.25
Anti-hypertensive treatment
 Number of drugs (%) 3 (1–3) 3 (1–3) 3 (2–4) 0.22
 ACE inhibitors/AR blockers (%) 81.4 80.2 90.8 0.025
 Diuretics (%) 62.7 61.5 72.4 0.064
 Beta-blockers (%) 45.8 45.6 47.4 0.77
 Calcium channel blockers (%) 28.2 27.4 34.2 0.22
Blood pressures (mmHg)
 Office SBP 147 (25) 146 (24) 154 (25) 0.009
 Office DBP 84 (13) 84 (13) 83 (12) 0.46
 Ambulatory 24 h SBP 128 (15) 128 (15) 134 (15) 0.001
 Ambulatory 24 h DBP 74 (10) 74 (10) 74 (9) 0.50
 Cumulative mean office SBP 140 (16) 140 (16) 146 (16) 0.001
 Cumulative mean office DBP 78 (10) 78 (10) 76 (9) 0.14
Laboratory variables
 Fasting glycemia (mmol/L) 8.9 (3.8) 8.9 (3.8) 9.1 (4.0) 0.72
 Baseline HbA1c (%) 8.0 (1.9) 8.0 (1.9) 8.2 (2.2) 0.45
 (mmol/mol) 63.9 (12.9) 63.9 (12.9) 66.1 (16.2)  
 Cumulative mean HbA1c (%) 7.8 (1.4) 7.8 (1.4) 7.9 (1.4) 0.52
 (mmol/mol) 61.7 (11.1) 61.7 (11.1) 62.8 (11.1)  
 Triacylglycerol (mmol/L) 2.0 (1.5) 2.0 (1.5) 2.1 (1.4) 0.65
 Baseline HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.1 (0.3) 1.1 (0.3) 1.1 (0.3) 0.25
 Cumulative mean HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.2 (0.3) 1.2 (0.3) 1.1 (0.3) 0.43
 Baseline LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.0 (1.0) 3.0 (1.0) 3.3 (0.9) 0.008
 Cumulative mean LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.5 (0.7) 2.6 (0.7) 2.7 (0.6) 0.16
 C-reactive protein (mg/L) 2.8 (1.2–6.3) 2.9 (1.2–6.4) 2.4 (1.3–4.9) 0.34
 Glomerular filtration rate (mL/min/1.73 m2) 81 (20) 82 (20) 75 (21) 0.005
 Albuminuria (mg/24 h) 13 (7–41) 13 (7–38) 21 (9–74) 0.010
Time interval between ABI evaluations (months) 91 (40) 90 (41) 100 (36) 0.027
Baseline ABI 1.07 (0.09) 1.07 (0.09) 1.04 (0.11) 0.058
Follow-up ABI 1.03 (0.14) 1.07 (0.09) 0.77 (0.20) < 0.001
Aortic stiffness (cf-PWV, ms/s) 10.9 (2.4) 10.8 (2.2) 12.5 (2.9) < 0.001
Increased aortic stiffness (> 10 m/s, %) 29.0 26.3 48.6 < 0.001
CC-IMT (mm) 1.05 (0.16) 1.04 (0.15) 1.13 (0.18) < 0.001
  1. Values are proportions, and means (standard deviations) or medians (interquartile range)
  2. SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, ABI ankle-brachial index, cf-PWV carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, CC-IMT common carotid intima-media thickness