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Table 1 Baseline characteristics according to gender and glycaemic category

From: Gender differences in screening for glucose perturbations, cardiovascular risk factor management and prognosis in patients with dysglycaemia and coronary artery disease: results from the ESC-EORP EUROASPIRE surveys

  Previously known diabetes Newly detected dysglycaemia
Women (n = 1342) Men (n = 3454) P-value Women (n = 1049) Men (n = 2980) P-valuea
Age (years) 66.6 (8.7) 64.6 (8.9) < 0.0001 66.8 (8.9) 64.0 (9.6) < 0.0001
Low educational level 24.5 (324/1323) 16.1 (548/3401) < 0.0001 19.9 (208/1046) 15.4 (456/2960) 0.0010
Currently smoking 16.1 (216/1342) 29.0 (1002/3454) < 0.0001 22.1 (232/1049) 33.1 (987/2980) < 0.0001
Persistent smoking 53.7 (116/216) 53.0 (531/1002) 0.88 48.3 (112/232) 44.9 (443/987) 0.38
Physical activity level on target 45.8 (594/1297) 55.2 (1852/3358) < 0.0001 51.5 (528/1026) 57.0 (1665/2922) 0.0024
Medical history  
 Hypertension 87.2 (1158/1328) 79.5 (2712/3410) < 0.0001 80.8 (841/1041) 73.7 (2172/2947) < 0.0001
 Dyslipidaemia 78.4 (1011/1289) 75.0 (2496/3327) 0.016 75.0 (766/1021) 68.9 (1977/2869) 0.00023
Anthropometrics—vitals
 BMI (kg/m2) 31.6 (5.9) 30.1 (4.8) 0.0001 29.8 (5.5) 29.0 (4.3) 0.0023
 Obesity 57.7 (754/1306) 45.6 (1550/3396) 0.0001 43.9 (460/1048) 36.6 (1089/2977) < 0.0001
 Central obesity 86.7 (1080/1246) 63.6 (2077/3266) < 0.0001 77.3 (789/1021) 54.2 (1577/2909) < 0.0001
 SBP (mmHg) 138.3 (20.3) 137.2 (18.9) 0.18 134.4 (19.5) 134.2 (18.6) 0.99
 DBP (mmHg) 79.3 (11.6) 80.1 (11.0) 0.036 79.3 (11.3) 80.3 (11.0) 0.0011
 Heart rate (bpm) 70.9 (11.2) 68.8 (11.1) < 0.0001 69.1 (11.1) 67.9 (11.4) 0.0018
Laboratory central assessment
 LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.52 (1.04) 2.21 (0.90) < 0.0001 2.76 (1.08) 2.46 (0.91) < 0.0001
 HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.15 (0.31) 1.03 (0.26) < 0.0001 1.29 (0.31) 1.12 (0.26) < 0.0001
 Total C (mmol/L) 4.56 (1.38) 4.08 (1.14) < 0.0001 4.74 (1.22) 4.31 (1.10) < 0.0001
 Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.99 (1.66) 1.91 (1.56) 0.0005 1.55 (0.81) 1.62 (1.05) 0.83
 FPG (mmol/L) n.a n.a n.a 6.53 (0.97) 6.63 (1.08) 0.0072
 2 h-PG (mmol/L) n.a n.a n.a 9.81 (2.37) 9.65 (2.51) 0.070
 HbA1c (NGSP, %)—(IFCC, mmol/mol)b 7.36 (1.70)—57 7.07 (1.49)—54 < 0.0001 5.80 (0.46)—40 5.79 (0.56)—40 0.014
 Creatinine (µmol/L) 85.3 (53.7) 97.9 (53.2) < 0.0001 78.0 (28.5) 93.4 (37.5) < 0.0001
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 89.2 (24.5) 76.9 (21.2) < 0.0001 93.9 (20.2) 78.5 (18.1) < 0.0001
Pharmacological treatment
 RAAS blockers 80.5 (1070/1329) 79.7 (2723/3418) 0.55 72.8 (759/1042) 76.0 (2251/2963) 0.046
 Beta blockers 85.7 (1138/1328) 83.7 (2860/3419) 0.084 83.3 (869/1043) 82.5 (2444/2964) 0.54
 Antiaggregants 93.7 (1242/1325) 93.1 (3184/3419) 0.48 91.3 (952/1043) 92.6 (2747/2965) 0.16
 Lipid lowering 83.7 (1112/1329) 87.6 (2991/3414) 0.00046 83.2 (866/1041) 85.7 (2540/2963) 0.055
 Statins 82.5 (1097/1329) 86.5 (2952/3414) 0.00071 82.1 (855/1041) 85.0 (2519/2963) 0.030
 Ezetimibe 3.1 (41/1329) 3.1 (105/3419) 1.00 2.2 (23/1043) 2.5 (75/2966) 0.64
 All four above 58.6 (775/1323) 58.9 (2009/3413) 0.87 52.0 (541/1040) 55.0 (1628/2960) 0.10
 Diuretics 48.2 (640/1329) 41.5 (1420/3418) < 0.0001 37.2 (388/1042) 29.3 (869/2964) < 0.0001
 Glucose-lowering drugs 92.7 (1244/1342) 91.6 (3162/3451) 0.24 n.a n.a n.a
 Antidepressant/antianxiety drugs 9.6 (128/1330) 7.1 (224/3418) 0.004 9.8 (102/1042) 5.2 (155/2963) < 0.0001
Advice on lifestyle changes
 Stop smoking 83.7 (169/202) 86.2 (833/966) 0.38 84.9 (191/225) 84.5 (792/937) 1.00
 Healthy diet 91.2 (1105/1212) 89.4 (2849/3186) 0.093 83.6 (806/964) 85.8 (2347/2734) 0.10
 Weight loss 72.8 (929/1276) 74.0 (2463/3327) 0.41 63.9 (647/1012) 67.4 (1953/2898) 0.049
 Increase physical activity 59.7 (762/1277) 65.6 (2176/3315) 0.00018 58.8 (597/1016) 63.3 (1821/2879) 0.012
Actions taken to change lifestyle
 Stop smoking 79.7 (165/207) 76.0 (728/958) 0.28 85.8 (193/225) 82.0 (769/938) 0.20
 Healthy diet 89.9 (1064/1183) 89.1 (2809/3152) 0.47 90.1 (858/952) 89.0 (2385/2679) 0.36
 Weight loss 58.8 (741/1260) 61.3 (2021/3299) 0.14 58.0 (583/1006) 60.1 (1720/2861) 0.23
 Increase physical activity 25.0 (301/1203) 33.5 (1065/3183) < 0.0001 32.3 (307/ 951) 40.2 (1100/2738) < 0.0001
 Attended a CPRP 27.0 (355/1315) 33.7 (1147/3404) < 0.0001 32.1 (332/1035) 35.7 (1052/2943) 0.034
 Attended a DEP 25.8 (314/1217) 26.0 (809/3116) 0.94 n.a n.a n.a
Quality of life assessment
 EQ-5D VAS score 56.1 (26.3) 60.6 (27.5) < 0.0001 59.2 (27.1) 63.4 (27.7) < 0.0001
 HeartQoL Global score 1.79 (0.72) 2.14 (0.67) < 0.0001 1.97 (0.70) 2.27 (0.62) < 0.0001
 HeartQoL Physical score 1.81 (0.74) 2.17 (0.70) < 0.0001 2.00 (0.72) 2.31 (0.64) < 0.0001
 HeartQoL Emotional score 1.73 (0.78) 2.08 (0.72) < 0.0001 1.91 (0.77) 2.18 (0.69) < 0.0001
  1. Cell entries are % (n/total number) or mean (SD)
  2. Italic values indicate statistically significant p-values
  3. 2 h-PG 2-h post-load glucose, BMI Body Mass Index, CPRP Cardiac Prevention and Rehabilitation Programme, DBP diastolic blood pressure, DEP diabetes educational programme, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, EQ-5D EuroQol 5D Questionnaire, FG fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c glycated haemoglobin, HDL-C high density lipoprotein cholesterol, Heart QoL Heart Quality of Life, IFCC International Federation of Clinical Chemistry, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, NGSP National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program, RAAS renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, SBP systolic blood pressure, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, Total C total cholesterol, VAS visual analogue scale
  4. asignificance level for testing differences between men and women in each diagnostic group
  5. bmean HbA1c levels were converted using the NGSP calculator at http://www.ngsp.org/convert1.asp