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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Activation of the cardiac non-neuronal cholinergic system prevents the development of diabetes-associated cardiovascular complications

  ND-CAD (n = 27) D-CAD (n = 20) p-value
Age (year) 68.7 ± 1.6 69.2 ± 1.9 0.8
Gender (male/female) 24/3 13/7  
Metabolic profile
 BMI (kg/m2) 29.3 ± 0.9 33.9 ± 1.1 0.002**
 Diabetic duration (years) 11.3 ± 1.7  
 HbA1c (mmol/mol) 37.1 ± 0.7 55.3 ± 2.5  < 0.001***
Hemodynamic profile
 MAP (mm Hg) 95.0 ±  2.6 95.9± 2.6 0.81
 LVEDV (mL) 102.0 ±  7.9 106.8 ± 9.9 0.74
 LVESV (mL) 47.6 ±  5.7 59.0 ± 8.5 0.29
 HR (beats/min) 73.9 ±  4.2 71.7 ± 2.6 0.68
 SV (mL) 54.4 ±  3.0 47.7 ± 3.2 0.22
 CO (L/min) 4.0 ±  0.4 3.5 ± 0.2 0.4
Diastolic profile
 E/A 1.0 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.05 0.03*
 E/e’ 11.6 ± 0.7 13.1 ± 1.0 0.21
 decT (msec) 245.8 ± 11.9 271.8 ± 19.8 0.24
Systolic profile
 Ejection fraction (%) 55.3 ± 1.8 49.1 ± 2.0 0.027*
 Fractional shortening (%) 30.6 ± 1.2 30.3 ± 2.6 0.93
Ventricular structure
 IVSd (cm) 1.2 ± 0.1 1.3 ± 0.1 0.56
 LVPWd (cm) 1.1 ± 0.04 1.0 ± 0.1 0.66
 LVIDd (cm) 4.6 ± 0.1 4.9 ± 0.2 0.21
 LVIDs (cm) 3.2 ± 0.1 3.4 ± 0.2 0.34
Medications
 Statins 21/27 (77.8%) 18/20 (90.0%)  
 Beta-blockers 20/27 (74.1%) 15/20 (75.0%)  
 ACE inhibitors 11/27 (40.7%) 12/20 (60.0%)  
 Calcium channel blockers 3/27 (11.1%) 14/20 (70.0%)  
 Anti-diabetic agents 0/27 (0%) 16/20 (80.0%)  
  Insulin 5/16 (31.3%)  
  Metformin 5/16 (31.3%)  
  Sulfonylurea 1/16 (6.3%)  
  Insulin and metformin 4/16 (25.0%)  
  Metformin and sulfonylurea 1/16 (6.3%)  
  1. BMI Body mass index, HbAIC Glycated hemoglobin, MAP Mean arterial pressure, LVEDV Left ventricular end-diastolic volume, LVESV Left ventricular end-systolic volume, HR Heart rate, SV Stroke volume, CO Cardiac output, E Early ventricular filling velocity, A Late ventricular filling velocity, e’ Early ventricular myocardium relaxation velocity, decT Early ventricular deceleration time, IVSd Interventricular septal diameter diastole, LVPWd Left ventricular posterior wall thickness at diastole, LVIDd Left ventricular internal diameter at diastole, LVIDs Left ventricular internal diameter at systole. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. Unpaired T-test was performed. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.0001 VS ND-CAD patients