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Fig. 2 | Cardiovascular Diabetology

Fig. 2

From: Activation of the cardiac non-neuronal cholinergic system prevents the development of diabetes-associated cardiovascular complications

Fig. 2

Dysregulation of cardiac NNCS in the diabetic db/db mouse heart. a, b Representative confocal images showing the localization of ChAT (yellow arrowhead) and GLUT-4 (red arrowhead) (a) as well as cardiac troponin I (cTnI, b) in the ND mouse ventricular tissues. Scale bars are 50 μm. c–g, i Quantitative bar graphs with scatter plots showing the protein expression of ChAT (c), M2AChR (d), AChE (e), VAChT (f), CHT1 (g) and GLUT-4 (i) in the ND and db/db mice at early, established and progressed stage of diabetes. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. Two-way ANOVA with Sidak’s test for multiple comparison was performed for all except GLUT-4, where Tukey’s test was performed. h, j Quantitative bar graphs with scatter plots showing the cardiac ACh content (h) and cardiac glucose content (j) in the LV of ND and db/db diabetic mice at different stages of diabetes. Two-way ANOVA with Sidak’s test for multiple comparison was performed. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. Unpaired T-test was performed. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 and ****p < 0.0001, vs age-matched ND mice. The numbers in the bars represent the number of samples and animals analyzed per group

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