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Table 3 Patient characteristics according to coronary artery calcium scores < or ≥ 100 Agatston units

From: Epicardial adipose tissue volume and coronary calcification among people living with diabetes: a cross-sectional study

  CAC < 100 AU CAC ≥ 100 AU OR [95%CI] p
n = 320 n = 89
Clinical characteristics     
 Age (years) 54.7 ± 12.2 65.7 ± 8.7   < 0.0001
 Gender (Male/Female) 164/156 54/35 0.7 [0.4–1.1] 0.120
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 29.3 ± 6.0 28.2 ± 5.5   0.119
Ethnicity     
 Caucasian 57(17.9) 31(34.8) REF  
 Afro-Caribbean 88(27.6) 15(16.9) 0.3 [0.2–0.6] 0.001
 Arabic 116(36.4) 30(33.7) 0.5 [0.3–0.9] 0.014
 Asia 47(14.7) 10(11.2) 0.4 [0.2–0.9] 0.023
 Other 11(3.4) 3(3.4) 0.5 [0.1–1.9] 0.316
Diabetes     
 Type     
  Type 1 52(16.2) 4(4.5) REF  
  Type 2 239(74.7) 79(88.8) 4.3 [1.5–12.3] 0.006
  Other 29(9.1) 6(6.7) 2.7 [0.7–10.3] 0.149
 Time since diagnosis (years) 12.9 ± 9.8 17.7 ± 10.8   < 0.0001
 HbA1c (%) 9.0 ± 2.3 8.7 ± 2.1   0.280
Diabetes-related complication     
 Retinopathy 116(37.8) 44(51.8) 1.8[1.1–2.9] 0.025
 Macular edema 28(9.3) 16(19.5) 2.4 [1.2–4.6] 0.018
 Nephropathy 100(33.0) 48(55.2) 2.5 [1.5–4.1] < 0.0001
 Neuropathy 120(38.5) 43(48.3) 1.5 [0.9–2.4] 0.112
 Macrovascular disease 30(9.4) 32(36.0) 5.4 [3.1–9.6] < 0.0001
Additional cardiovascular risk factors
 Family history of premature CAD 27(21.8) 6(24.0) 1.1 [0.4–3.1] 0.795
 Hypertension 163(50.9) 61(69.3) 2.2 [1.3–3.6] 0.002
 Dyslipidaemia 171(53.4) 67(76.1) 2.8 [1.6–4.8] < 0.0001
 Current smoking 52(16.2) 19(21.3) 1.4 [0.8–2.5] 0.270
 Cumulative tobacco consumption (pack-year) 6.4 ± 14.1 14.7 ± 22.8   < 0.0001
  1. Data: mean ± standard deviation
  2. AU Agatston unit, CAD coronary artery disease, OR odds ratio, 95% CI 95% confidence interval