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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of all participants

From: Relation of cardiac adipose tissue to coronary calcification and myocardial microvascular function in type 1 and type 2 diabetes

CharacteristicsControls (n = 30)Persons with type 1 diabetes (n = 60)Persons with type 2 diabetes (n = 60)
AllCardiac adipose tissue < 88 mLCardiac adipose tissue ≥ 88 mLpAllCardiac adipose tissue < 71 mLCardiac adipose tissue ≥ 71 mLpAllCardiac adipose tissue < 226 mLCardiac adipose tissue ≥ 226 mLp
Numbers of participants301415603030603030 
Female, n (%)12 (40.0)7 (24.1)4 (13.8)0.2025 (41.7)16 (53.3)9 (30.0)0.0720 (33.3)13 (43.3)7 (23.3)0.1
Age (years)60 (10)57 (9)63 (10)0.1459 (9)58 (10)61 (8)0.2163 (9)64 (10)63 (8)0.76
Body mass index (kg/m2)24.8 (3.4)22.2 (2.0)27.2 (2.8)< 0.000126.4 (4.2)23.8 (2.6)29.1 (3.8)< 0.000131.6 (4.5)30.2 (4.5)32.9 (4.2)0.02
Known diabetes duration (years)37 (14)37 (13)37 (14)0.9914 (10)15 (8)13 (12)0.68
24 h systolic blood pressure (mmHg)126 (14)123 (11)132 (14)0.06136 (10)136 (10)138 (10)0.47134 (18)133 (16)135 (20)0.62
HbA1c (%)35.8 (1.9)35.2 (2.2)36.3 (1.5)0.1161.8 (10.1)62.1 (9.7)61.6 (10.6)0.8455.5 (11.4)56.1 (13.3)55.0 (9.3)0.71
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)3.4 (0.7)3.3 (0.5)3.5 (0.9)0.422.2 (0.8)2.1 (0.6)2.2 (0.9)0.532.2 (0.9)2.1 (0.8)2.3 (0.9)0.30
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.6 (0.5)1.8 (0.7)1.4 (0.3)0.041.8 (0.5)1.9 (0.5)1.7 (0.5)0.111.1 (0.4)1.2 (0.5)1.0 (0.2)0.03
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.5 (0.7)5.5 (0.8)5.5 (0.8)0.964.5 (0.9)4.4 (0.8)4.5 (1.0)0.474.3 (0.9)4.2 (0.9)4.4 (0.9)0.60
eGFR (mL min−1 1.73 m−2)82.8 (13.1)85.3 (12.2)80.2 (14.3)0.3175.8 (22.3)76.9 (24.0)74.7 (20.7)0.7176.0 (24.0)80.3 (23.0)71.8 (24.6)0.17
Urinary albumin excretion rate (mg/24 h)*6.0 [5.0–10.5]5.8 [5.0–6.5]6.5 [5.0–22.5]0.1211.5 [3.3–120.8]8.5 [4.3–129.7]18 [3.0–106.0]0.5732.5 [6.5–146.0]16 [6.5–93.5]50.5 [8.5–208.3]0.71
Anti-hypertensive treatment, n (%)3 (10.0)2 (6.9)1 (3.4)0.4547 (78.3)23 (76.7)24 (80)0.7555 (91.7)25 (83.3)30 (100)0.05
Aspirin treatment, n (%)1 (3.3)1 (3.5)0 (0)1.030 (50.0)14 (46.7)16 (53.3)0.6153 (88.3)26 (86.7)27 (90.0)1.0
Lipid lowering medication, n (%)0 (0)0045 (75.0)22 (73.3)23 (76.7)0.7756 (93.3)28 (93.3)28 (93.3)1.0
Smokers, n (%)4 (13.3)3 (10.3)1 (3.5)0.338 (14.0)4 (14.3)4 (13.8)1.046 (76.7)23 (76.7)23 (76.7)1.0
Known coronary artery disease or ischemia identified by cardiac PET, n (%)1 (3.3)011.09 (15)3 (10.0)6 (20.0)0.4713 (21.7)9 (30.0)4 (13.3)0.12
Left ventricle ejection fraction (mL)60.0 (7.5)59.8 (8.4)60.2 (7.0)0.966.1 (9.3)68.2 (9.1)64.0 (9.1)0.0861.6 (9.0)60.2 (8.5)63.0 (9.5)0.25
Coronary artery calcium score0 [0–81]0 [0–0]56 [0–176]0.00599 [22.5–434]73 [17.5–392.5]196.5 [23.5–1286.9]0.63211 [23.5–585]300 [28–964]163 [13–467]0.35
Myocardial flow reserve3.0 (0.8)3.4 (0.7)2.6 (0.7)0.0052.6 (1.0)2.6 (1.1)2.6 (0.9)0.982.3 (0.7)2.2 (0.6)2.4 (0.8)0.32
Late heart-to-mediastinum ratio n = 1032.8 (0.6)3.0 (0.5)2.5 (0.7)0.122.5 (0.5)2.5 (0.5)2.4 (0.4)0.162.5 (0.5)2.4 (0.6)2.5 (0.5)0.65
  1. Data represents numbers, n (%), mean (SD) or median [IQR]
  2. The three groups were analyzed separately, and p values compare values from participants with cardiac adipose tissue below or above the median within each of the three groups. p values from independent samples t-test and χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test
  3. Italic values indicate significance of p value (p < 0.05)
  4. eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate
  5. *Urinary albumin creatinine rate for the type 1 diabetes cohort