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Table 2 Echocardiographic parameters

From: Load-independent effects of empagliflozin contribute to improved cardiac function in experimental heart failure with reduced ejection fraction

 Sham + controlSham + empaMI + vehicleMI + empa
Heart rate (bpm)382 ± 6343 ± 6350 ± 7336 ± 7
Cardiac output (ml/min)77 ± 265 ± 1*56 ± 3*,‡50 ± 2*,‡
FS (%)56 ± 155 ± 121 ± 1*22 ± 2
LVIDd (mm)6.8 ± 0.16.6 ± 0.18.6 ± 0.2*8.2 ± 0.2*,†
LVIDs (mm)3.0 ± 0.13.0 ± 0.16.9 ± 0.2*6.5 ± 0.2
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. N = 24 in sham + control and sham + empa groups; N = 23 and 25 in MI + vehicle and MI + Empa groups, respectively
  2. Empa empagliflozin, HR heart rate, FS fractional shortening, LVIDd left ventricular internal diameter in diastole, LVIDs left ventricular internal diameter in systole
  3. * p < 0.05 vs. sham control group
  4. p < 0.05 vs. MI + vehicle group
  5. p < 0.05 vs. Sham + empa