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Table 2 Patient level intravascular ultrasound features of non-culprit lesions

From: Relationship between insulin resistance, coronary plaque, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes: an analysis from the PROSPECT study

  Insulin sensitive (n = 234) Likely insulin resistance (n = 109) Diabetic insulin resistance (n = 65) Diabetes mellitus (n = 99) p value
Grayscale intravascular ultrasound
 Number of lesions 5 (3–6) 5 (4–6) 6 (4–7) 5 (4–6) 0.05
  ≥ 1 echolucent plaque 14.5 (32/221) 8.7 (9/103) 23.8 (15/63) 20.2 (19/94) 0.03
  ≥ 1 plaque rupture 12.2 (27/221) 20.4 (21/103) 17.5 (11/63) 11.7 (11/94) 0.18
 Total lesion length, mm 69.3 (40.0–103.0) 72.4 (46.1–96.8) 94.5 (61.1–115.9) 66.1 (45.6–95.0) 0.02
 Plaque volume, % 49.6 (47.0–52.3) 48.8 (46.1–51.2) 49.0 (46.6–52.5) 49.6 (46.8–52.3) 0.27
 Average EEM CSA, mm3/mm 15.8 (13.8–18.4) 16.3 (14.6–19.5) 17.3 (14.3–19.2) 16.5 (14.2–18.4) 0.11
 Average luminal CSA, mm3/mm 8.0 (6.8–9.2) 8.6 (7.1–10.1) 8.7 (7.0–9.9) 8.0 (7.0–9.4) 0.04
VH-intravascular ultrasound
 Average necrotic core CSA, mm3/mm 0.54 (0.26–0.82) 0.55 (0.34–0.89) 0.49 (0.34–0.73) 0.50 (0.31–0.78) 0.90
 Average dense calcium CSA, mm3/mm 0.24 (0.11–0.42) 0.21 (0.14–0.40) 0.18 (0.11–0.34) 0.24 (0.12–0.41) 0.75
 Average fibrous tissue CSA, mm3/mm 2.48 (1.89–3.14) 2.64 (1.99–3.44) 2.79 (2.15–3.62) 2.73 (2.10–3.37) 0.10
 Average fibrofatty CSA, mm3/mm 0.80 (0.49–1.20) 0.82 (0.54–1.11) 0.95 (0.56–1.59) 0.92 (0.57–1.40) 0.12
 Total number of VH-TCFA lesions per patients 1.0 (0.0–2.0) 1.0 (0.0–2.0) 1.0 (0.0–1.0) 1.0 (0.0,1.5) 0.43
High-risk plaque characteristics
  ≥ 1 lesion with MLA ≤ 4 mm2 57.9 (128/221) 46.6 (48/103) 55.6 (35/63) 60.6 (57/94) 0.18
  ≥ 1 lesion with plaque burden ≥ 70% 29.9 (66/221) 33.0 (34/103) 39.7 (25/63) 35.1 (33/94) 0.49
  ≥ 1 VH-TCFA 54.2 (110/203) 63.8 (60/94) 53.3 (32/60) 55.7 (49/88) 0.43
  1. Values are median (interquartile range) or % (n/N). CSA, cross-sectional area; EEM, external elastic membrane; MLA, minimal lumen area; TCFA, thin-cap fibroatheroma