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Table 1 Baseline and clinical characteristics

From: Relationship between insulin resistance, coronary plaque, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes: an analysis from the PROSPECT study

  Insulin sensitive (n = 234) Likely insulin resistance (n = 109) Diabetic insulin resistance (n = 65) Diabetes mellitus (n = 99) p value
Age, years 59.3 (51.5–67.7) 57.2 (49.2–65.0) 57.6 (49.6–65.5) 60.8 (54.5–69.9) 0.056
Male 76.5 (179/234) 78.9 (86/109) 84.6 (55/65) 69.7 (69/99) 0.15
Waist circumference, cm 97.0 (89.0–103.0) 104.1 (96.0–113.0) 106.7 (96.5–115.0) 104.1 (94.0–114.3)  < 0.0001
Body mass index, kg/m2 26.9 (24.5–29.3) 29.6 (26.5–33.5) 30.0 (27.1–35.5) 29.4 (26.3–32.8)  < 0.0001
Systolic BP, mm Hg 130 (112–144) 130 (119–140) 133 (120–143) 130 (115–146) 0.50
Diastolic BP, mm Hg 73 (63–81) 75 (70–82) 74 (68–84) 70 (67–85) 0.19
Prior myocardial infarction 11.7 (27/231) 8.3 (9/108) 10.8 (7/65) 12.1 (12/99) 0.79
Family history of CAD 39.4 (82/208) 48.0 (47/98) 56.1 (32/57) 34.5 (29/84) 0.04
Hypertension requiring medication 42.0 (97/231) 46.8 (51/109) 46.2 (30/65) 65.3 (64/98) 0.002
Hypercholesterolemia requiring medication 44.3 (94/212) 33.3 (33/99) 39.3 (24/61) 60.0 (57/95) 0.002
Current smoking 50.4 (117/232) 41.5 (44/106) 40.0 (26/65) 40.2 (39/97) 0.18
Clinical presentation
 STEMI 26.1 (61/234) 27.5 (30/109) 26.2 (17/65) 26.3 (26/99) 0.99
 Non-STEMI 67.1 (157/234) 69.7 (76/109) 73.8 (48/65) 72.7 (72/99) 0.64
 Unstable angina 6.8 (16/234) 2.8 (3/109) 0.0 (0/65) 1.0 (1/99) 0.01
Laboratory parameters during index hospitalization
 eGFR, mL/min 93.9 (75.2–116.8) 104.7 (78.5–140.6) 109.6 (79.7–138.0) 97.8 (68.7–127.5) 0.02
 Total cholesterol, mg/dL 170.0 (148–195) 172.0 (153.8–192.3) 171.0 (153.8–197) 161.5 (140.5–198.5) 0.66
 HDL, mg/dL 38.6 (34–46) 38.6 (32–41) 38.6 (33–44) 39.0 (32–49) 0.13
 LDL, mg/dL 101.2 (81.1–129.2) 104.4 (78.4–125.6) 109.0 (83–149.6) 93.6 (67–121.0) 0.12
 Triglycerides, mg/dL 118.0 (88.6–163.0) 128.0 (88.6–177.1) 140.5 (101.5–179.0) 145.5 (97.0–206.0) 0.02
 Fasting glucose, mg/dL 92 (87–100) 107 (96–115) 120 (106–139) 123 (103–160)  < 0.0001
 Fasting insulin, µU/L 6.0 (4.0–8.0) 13.0 (11.0–16.0) 31.5 (24.0–55.0) 11.0 (6.0–22.0)  < 0.0001
 HbA1c, % 5.6 (5.2–6.0) 5.7 (5.3–6.0) 5.7 (5.3–5.9) 6.6 (6.2–7.5)  < 0.0001
 C-reactive protein, mg/dL 6.90 (2.10–17.00) 12.55 (3.70–27.65) 8.65 (3.40–24.00) 6.95 (2.60–21.85) 0.005
Medication at discharge
 Lipid lowering drug 88.5 (207/234) 90.8 (99/109) 90.8 (59/65) 86.9 (86/99) 0.78
 Aspirin 98.3 (230/234) 97.2 (106/109) 96.9 (63/65) 98.0 (97/99) 0.88
 Thienopyridine 98.3 (230/234) 100.0 (109/109) 98.5 (64/65) 97.0 (96/99) 0.37
 Beta blocker 91.5 (214/234) 89.9 (98/109) 93.8 (61/65) 89.9 (89/99) 0.80
  1. Values are median (interquartile range) or % (n/N). BP, blood pressure; CAD, coronary artery disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; STEMI, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction