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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics of patients in both treatment groups

From: Effect of tofogliflozin on arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes: prespecified sub-analysis of the prospective, randomized, open-label, parallel-group comparative UTOPIA trial

Parameters

Tofogliflozin group (n = 80)

Conventional group (n = 74)

p value

Sex (males) (%)

48 (60.0)

48 (64.9)

0.53

Age (years)

61.5 ± 9.2

62.5 ± 9.3

0.50

Current smoking

16 (20.0)

14 (18.9)

0.87

Body mass index (kg/m2)

26.4 ± 5.4

26.2 ± 4.2

0.83

Waist circumference (cm)

91.2 ± 12.3 (n = 75)

91.7 ± 10.7

0.79

Duration of diabetes (years)

11.9 ± 8.2

14.1 ± 8.7

0.11

HbA1c (%)

7.5 ± 0.7

7.4 ± 0.8

0.32

Fasting blood glucose (mmol/L)

8.0 ± 1.8

7.9 ± 1.8 (n = 73)

0.65

C-peptide (ng/mL)

1.91 ± 1.11 (n = 79)

1.92 ± 0.89 (n = 73)

0.96

Hypertension

38 (47.5)

49 (66.2)

0.019

Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)

130.9 ± 14.4

132.4 ± 18.8

0.58

Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)

79.0 ± 10.0

79.6 ± 12.0

0.70

Dyslipidemia

48 (60.0)

51 (68.9)

0.31

Total cholesterol (mmol/L)

5.01 ± 0.77 (n = 79)

5.07 ± 0.79 (n = 73)

0.63

LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)

2.88 ± 0.69

3.01 ± 0.66

0.25

HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)

1.47 ± 0.39

1.37 ± 0.27

0.09

Triglyceride (mmol/L)

1.07 [0.84, 1.61]

1.46 (1.02, 1.90)

0.011

Diabetic retinopathy

14 (17.9)

17 (23.3)

0.43

eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)

79.1 ± 19.9

82.0 ± 26.6

0.45

Urinary albumin excretion (mg/g/cre)

9.6 (5.7, 36.8) (n = 75)

18.7 (5.3, 65.9) (n = 69)

0.38

Diabetic nephropathy

24 (30.0)

27 (36.5)

0.49

Use of glucose-lowering agents

69 (86.3)

61 (82.4)

0.66

 Metformin

36 (45.0)

38 (51.4)

0.52

 Sulfonylurea

16 (20.0)

14 (18.9)

1.00

 Glinides

4 (5.0)

4 (5.4)

1.00

 Thiazolidinediones

8 (10.0)

10 (13.5)

0.62

 α-Glucosidase inhibitor

14 (17.5)

15 (20.3)

0.68

 DPP-4 inhibitors

36 (45.0)

34 (45.9)

1.00

 GLP-1 R agonists

9 (11.3)

4 (5.4)

0.25

 Insulin

12 (15.0)

16 (21.6)

0.30

Use of antihypertensive drugs

36 (45.0)

46 (62.2)

0.037

 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors

1 (1.3)

4 (5.4)

0.20

 Angiotensin II receptor blockers

25 (31.3)

41 (55.4)

0.003

 Direct renin inhibitor

1 (1.3)

0 (0.0)

1.00

 Calcium channel blocker

24 (30.0)

24 (32.4)

0.86

 Diuretic drugs

4 (5.0)

6 (8.1)

0.52

 α-Adrenergic receptor antagonist

1 (1.3)

0 (0.0)

1.00

 β-Adrenergic receptor antagonist

3 (3.8)

2 (2.7)

1.00

 Others

0 (0.0)

0 (0.0)

Use of lipid-lowering agents

39 (48.8)

39 (52.7)

0.63

 Statins

33 (41.3)

32 (42.3)

0.87

 Ezetimibe

4 (5.0)

5 (6.8)

0.74

 Resins

0 (0.0)

0 (0.0)

 Fibrates

4 (5.0)

2 (2.7)

0.68

Use of antithrombotic agents

11 (13.8)

11 (14.9)

1.00

 Antiplatelet agents

10 (12.5)

9 (12.2)

1.00

 Anticoagulants

1 (1.3)

2 (2.7)

0.61

 Others

0 (0.0)

0 (0.0)

Right baPWV (cm/s)

1690.1 ± 399.2

1680.4 ± 323.6

0.87

Left baPWV (cm/s)

1696.2 ± 432.7

1672.8 ± 338.0

0.71

Mean baPWV (cm/s)

1693.2 ± 410.3

1676.6 ± 324.6

0.78

  1. Data are presented as the number (%) of patients, mean ± standard deviation (SD) values, or median (the 25th and 75th percentiles) values
  2. HbA1C glycated hemoglobin, SD standard deviation, LDL low-density lipoprotein, HDL high-density lipoprotein, DPP-4 dipeptidyl peptidase, GLP glucagon-like peptide-1, baPWV brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity