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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics of patients in both treatment groups

From: Effect of tofogliflozin on arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes: prespecified sub-analysis of the prospective, randomized, open-label, parallel-group comparative UTOPIA trial

Parameters Tofogliflozin group (n = 80) Conventional group (n = 74) p value
Sex (males) (%) 48 (60.0) 48 (64.9) 0.53
Age (years) 61.5 ± 9.2 62.5 ± 9.3 0.50
Current smoking 16 (20.0) 14 (18.9) 0.87
Body mass index (kg/m2) 26.4 ± 5.4 26.2 ± 4.2 0.83
Waist circumference (cm) 91.2 ± 12.3 (n = 75) 91.7 ± 10.7 0.79
Duration of diabetes (years) 11.9 ± 8.2 14.1 ± 8.7 0.11
HbA1c (%) 7.5 ± 0.7 7.4 ± 0.8 0.32
Fasting blood glucose (mmol/L) 8.0 ± 1.8 7.9 ± 1.8 (n = 73) 0.65
C-peptide (ng/mL) 1.91 ± 1.11 (n = 79) 1.92 ± 0.89 (n = 73) 0.96
Hypertension 38 (47.5) 49 (66.2) 0.019
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 130.9 ± 14.4 132.4 ± 18.8 0.58
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 79.0 ± 10.0 79.6 ± 12.0 0.70
Dyslipidemia 48 (60.0) 51 (68.9) 0.31
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.01 ± 0.77 (n = 79) 5.07 ± 0.79 (n = 73) 0.63
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.88 ± 0.69 3.01 ± 0.66 0.25
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.47 ± 0.39 1.37 ± 0.27 0.09
Triglyceride (mmol/L) 1.07 [0.84, 1.61] 1.46 (1.02, 1.90) 0.011
Diabetic retinopathy 14 (17.9) 17 (23.3) 0.43
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 79.1 ± 19.9 82.0 ± 26.6 0.45
Urinary albumin excretion (mg/g/cre) 9.6 (5.7, 36.8) (n = 75) 18.7 (5.3, 65.9) (n = 69) 0.38
Diabetic nephropathy 24 (30.0) 27 (36.5) 0.49
Use of glucose-lowering agents 69 (86.3) 61 (82.4) 0.66
 Metformin 36 (45.0) 38 (51.4) 0.52
 Sulfonylurea 16 (20.0) 14 (18.9) 1.00
 Glinides 4 (5.0) 4 (5.4) 1.00
 Thiazolidinediones 8 (10.0) 10 (13.5) 0.62
 α-Glucosidase inhibitor 14 (17.5) 15 (20.3) 0.68
 DPP-4 inhibitors 36 (45.0) 34 (45.9) 1.00
 GLP-1 R agonists 9 (11.3) 4 (5.4) 0.25
 Insulin 12 (15.0) 16 (21.6) 0.30
Use of antihypertensive drugs 36 (45.0) 46 (62.2) 0.037
 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors 1 (1.3) 4 (5.4) 0.20
 Angiotensin II receptor blockers 25 (31.3) 41 (55.4) 0.003
 Direct renin inhibitor 1 (1.3) 0 (0.0) 1.00
 Calcium channel blocker 24 (30.0) 24 (32.4) 0.86
 Diuretic drugs 4 (5.0) 6 (8.1) 0.52
 α-Adrenergic receptor antagonist 1 (1.3) 0 (0.0) 1.00
 β-Adrenergic receptor antagonist 3 (3.8) 2 (2.7) 1.00
 Others 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Use of lipid-lowering agents 39 (48.8) 39 (52.7) 0.63
 Statins 33 (41.3) 32 (42.3) 0.87
 Ezetimibe 4 (5.0) 5 (6.8) 0.74
 Resins 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
 Fibrates 4 (5.0) 2 (2.7) 0.68
Use of antithrombotic agents 11 (13.8) 11 (14.9) 1.00
 Antiplatelet agents 10 (12.5) 9 (12.2) 1.00
 Anticoagulants 1 (1.3) 2 (2.7) 0.61
 Others 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Right baPWV (cm/s) 1690.1 ± 399.2 1680.4 ± 323.6 0.87
Left baPWV (cm/s) 1696.2 ± 432.7 1672.8 ± 338.0 0.71
Mean baPWV (cm/s) 1693.2 ± 410.3 1676.6 ± 324.6 0.78
  1. Data are presented as the number (%) of patients, mean ± standard deviation (SD) values, or median (the 25th and 75th percentiles) values
  2. HbA1C glycated hemoglobin, SD standard deviation, LDL low-density lipoprotein, HDL high-density lipoprotein, DPP-4 dipeptidyl peptidase, GLP glucagon-like peptide-1, baPWV brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity