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Table 2 Association between glycemic abnormality and impaired LVGLS (> − 16.65%)

From: Impact of insulin resistance on subclinical left ventricular dysfunction in normal weight and overweight/obese japanese subjects in a general community

  Abnormal HOMA-IR DM
Odds ratio (95% CI) p value Odds ratio (95% CI) p value
Univariable 4.52 (2.58–7.91)  < 0.001 5.87 (3.08–11.2)  < 0.001
Model 1 3.49 (1.97–6.20)  < 0.001 4.05 (2.07–7.92)  < 0.001
BMI adjusted model
 Model 2 2.34 (1.26–4.34) 0.007 2.97 (1.45–6.09) 0.003
 Model 3 2.37 (1.27–4.42) 0.006 2.95 (1.44–6.06) 0.003
 Model 4 2.38 (1.27–4.44) 0.007 3.02 (1.46–6.24) 0.003
WC adjusted model
 Model 2 2.21 (1.17–4.15) 0.014 2.75 (1.33–5.68) 0.006
 Model 3 2.24 (1.19–4.23) 0.013 2.73 (1.32–5.63) 0.007
 Model 4 2.23 (1.18–4.22) 0.013 2.80 (1.35–5.81) 0.006
  1. Reference; normal HOMA-IR
  2. Model 1: adjusted for age and sex
  3. Model 2: adjusted for Model 1 plus hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking status and BMI (BMI adjusted model) or WC (WC-adjusted model)
  4. Model 3: adjusted for Model 2 plus echocardiographic parameters including LV mass index and E/e′
  5. Model 4: adjusted for Model 3 plus serum CRP and eGFR
  6. BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, CRP C-reactive protein, DM diabetes mellitus, E  early diastolic transmitral flow velocity, e′ early diastolic mitral annular velocity, eGFR  estimated glomerular filtration rate, GLS global longitudinal strain, HOMA-IR  homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, LV left ventricle, WC waist circumference
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