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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population stratified by glucose metabolism

From: Impact of insulin resistance on subclinical left ventricular dysfunction in normal weight and overweight/obese japanese subjects in a general community

  Normal HOMA-IR
(n = 428)
Abnormal HOMA-IR
(n = 66)
DM
(n = 45)
p value
Age, years 56 ± 10 57 ± 10 62 ± 9*,† 0.002
Men, n (%) 269 (62.9) 60 (90.9) 41 (91.1)  < 0.001
Hypertension, n (%) 101 (23.6) 29 (43.9) 25 (55.6)  < 0.001
Hyperlipidemia, n (%) 131 (30.6) 30 (45.5) 33 (73.3)  < 0.001
Current smoking, n (%) 88 (20.6) 18 (27.3) 13 (28.9) 0.244
Body mass index, kg/m2 23.0 ± 2.8 26.4 ± 2.9* 24.9 ± 3.7*,†  < 0.001
Overweight/obesity, n (%) 100 (23.4) 40 (60.6) 17 (37.8)  < 0.001
Waist circumference, cm 83.9 ± 8.0 94.1 ± 8.0* 91.2 ± 8.9*  < 0.001
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg 118 ± 15 124 ± 12* 128 ± 16*  < 0.001
Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg 76 ± 10 80 ± 10* 78 ± 9  < 0.001
Medications
 Anti-hypertensive drugs, n (%) 66 (15.4) 20 (30.3) 22 (48.9)  < 0.001
 Lipid-lowering drugs, n (%) 76 (17.8) 22 (33.3) 29 (64.4)  < 0.001
 Oral anti-diabetic drugs, n (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 37 (82.2) N/A
Laboratory parameters
 Fasting glucose, mg/dl 92 ± 8 101 ± 9* 118 ± 20*,†  < 0.001
 Fasting Insulin, μU/ml 3.02 ± 1.45 8.73 ± 2.83* 7.84 ± 16.42*  < 0.001
 HOMA-IR 0.70 ± 0.35 2.17 ± 0.69* 2.16 ± 3.55*  < 0.001
 HbA1c, % 5.6 ± 0.3 5.8 ± 0.4* 6.9 ± 0.7*,†  < 0.001
 Total cholesterol, mg/dl 205 ± 34 207 ± 40 184 ± 37*,†  < 0.001
 LDL cholesterol, mg/dl 121 ± 31 124 ± 31 106 ± 34*,† 0.006
 HDL cholesterol, mg/dl 68 ± 17 54 ± 13* 57 ± 14*  < 0.001
 eGFR, ml/min/1.73m2 77 ± 14 75 ± 16 75 ± 18 0.255
 C-reactive protein, mg/dl 0.04 (0.02–0.08) 0.07 (0.05–0.11)* 0.07 (0.03–0.14)*  < 0.001
Echocardiographic parameters
 LV end-diastolic diameter, mm 44.1 ± 4.1 45.8 ± 4.7* 45.7 ± 3.9* 0.001
 LV end-systolic diameter, mm 28.1 ± 3.2 29.3 ± 3.8* 29.3 ± 3.2 0.004
 LV ejection fraction, % 63.0 ± 5.5 60.4 ± 5.3* 60.3 ± 5.3*  < 0.001
 LV mass index, g/m2 64.5 ± 15.2 66.4 ± 15.1 72.8 ± 17.6* 0.002
 E wave, cm/s 66.1 ± 13.6 61.9 ± 9.9* 58.3 ± 11.4*  < 0.001
 A wave, cm/s 57.7 ± 14.7 59.3 ± 14.2 62.1 ± 14.5 0.130
 E/A ratio 1.21 ± 0.39 1.10 ± 0.30* 0.97 ± 0.25*  < 0.001
 e′, cm/s 8.2 ± 2.0 7.4 ± 1.6* 6.5 ± 1.4*,†  < 0.001
 E/e′ ratio 8.4 ± 2.1 8.7 ± 2.0 9.3 ± 2.1* 0.017
 LA volume index, ml/m2 22.0 ± 5.7 23.0 ± 6.1 21.9 ± 5.0 0.359
 LVGLS, % − 19.7 ± 3.1 − 17.6 ± 2.6* − 16.8 ± 2.4*  < 0.001
  Impaired LVGLS, n (%) 60 (14.0) 28 (42.4) 22 (48.9)  < 0.001
  1. Values are mean ±  standard deviation, n (percentage), or median (25th–75th percentile)
  2. A late diastolic transmitral flow velocity, DM diabetes mellitus, E early diastolic transmitral flow velocity, e′ early diastolic mitral annular velocity, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, GLS global longitudinal strain, HDL high density lipoprotein, HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, LA left atrium, LDL low density lipoprotein, LV left ventricle
  3. * p<0.05 compared with normal HOMA-IR group
  4. p<0.05 compared with abnormal HOMA-IR group
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