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Table 2 Association between quartiles of MEDLIFE index and metabolic syndrome and its components, HOMAR-IR and C-reactive protein in the ENRICA cohort (N = 11,090)

From: Association between the Mediterranean lifestyle, metabolic syndrome and mortality: a whole-country cohort in Spain

  Q1 (5–11 p) Q2 (12–13 p) Q3 (14–15 p) Q4 (16–23 p) P-trend
Total number of participants 3042 3435 2917 1696  
Metabolic syndrome, cases 512 530 385 185  
 Model 1, OR (95% CI) 1 Ref. 0.91 (0.77, 1.07) 0.80 (0.67, 0.95) 0.66 (0.53, 0.83) < 0.001
 Model 2, OR (95% CI) 1 Ref. 0.88 (0.73, 1.04) 0.86 (0.70, 1.04) 0.71 (0.56, 0.90) 0.007
 Model 3, OR (95% CI) 1 Ref. 0.89 (0.74, 1.07) 0.87 (0.72, 1.06) 0.73 (0.58, 0.93) 0.016
Components of the metabolic syndrome
 Abdominal obesitya, cases 1111 1176 927 476  
  Model 1, OR (95% CI) 1 Ref. 0.91 (0.80, 1.04) 0.82 (0.71, 0.93) 0.68 (0.58, 0.81) < 0.001
  Model 2, OR (95% CI) 1 Ref. 0.82 (0.69, 0.97) 0.83 (0.69, 0.99) 0.63 (0.50, 0.79) < 0.001
  Model 3, OR (95% CI) 1 Ref. 0.82 (0.69, 0.97) 0.84 (0.70, 1.00) 0.63 (0.51, 0.80) < 0.001
 Fasting blood glucose 100–126 mg/dl, cases 161 175 139 60  
  Model 1, OR (95% CI) 1 Ref. 1.07 (0.81, 1.41) 1.02 (0.77, 1.36) 0.73 (0.51, 1.06) 0.193
  Model 2, OR (95% CI) 1 Ref. 1.04 (0.78, 1.37) 1.04 (0.78, 1.39) 0.74 (0.51, 1.07) 0.247
  Model 3, OR (95% CI) 1 Ref. 1.05 (0.79, 1.39) 1.05 (0.79, 1.40) 0.75 (0.52, 1.08) 0.282
 Blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mmHg, cases 1354 1555 1217 723  
  Model 1, OR (95% CI) 1 Ref. 1.07 (0.94, 1.22) 0.87 (0.75, 1.00) 0.90 (0.76, 1.06) 0.022
  Model 2, OR (95% CI) 1 Ref. 1.08 (0.94, 1.25) 0.88 (0.76, 1.01) 0.91 (0.77, 1.08) 0.046
  Model 3, OR (95% CI) 1 Ref. 1.08 (0.94, 1.24) 0.92 (0.80, 1.05) 0.94 (0.80, 1.10) 0.13
 Triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dl, cases 568 581 455 240  
  Model 1, OR (95% CI) 1 Ref. 0.89 (0.77, 1.04) 0.80 (0.67, 0.94) 0.74 (0.61, 0.90) 0.001
  Model 2, OR (95% CI) 1 Ref. 0.91 (0.78, 1.06) 0.87 (0.73, 1.03) 0.81 (0.66, 0.99) 0.032
  Model 3, OR (95% CI) 1 Ref. 0.92 (0.78, 1.07) 0.88 (0.74, 1.05) 0.83 (0.68, 1.02) 0.053
 Low HDL-Cb, cases 847 905 682 348  
  Model 1, OR (95% CI) 1 Ref. 0.87 (0.76, 0.99) 0.80 (0.70, 0.92) 0.68 (0.58, 0.80) < 0.001
  Model 2, OR (95% CI) 1 Ref. 0.89 (0.77, 1.03) 0.86 (0.74, 0.99) 0.75 (0.63, 0.89) 0.001
  Model 3, OR (95% CI) 1 Ref. 0.89 (0.78, 1.03) 0.86 (0.74, 0.99) 0.76 (0.63, 0.90) 0.001
HOMA-IR, 95% CI, difference of means
 Model 1, β (95% CI) 0 Ref. − 0.04 (− 0.12, 0.06) − 0.11 (− 0.20, − 0.02) − 0.21 (− 0.31, − 0.11) < 0.001
 Model 2, β (95% CI) 0 Ref. − 0.03 (− 0.12, 0.05) − 0.08 (− 0.16, − 0.02) − 0.18 (− 0.27, − 0.09) < 0.001
 Model 3, β (95% CI) 0 Ref. − 0.03 (− 0.12, 0.05) − 0.06 (− 0.15, 0.02) − 0.17 (− 0.26, − 0.08) 0.001
Hs-CRP (mg/dl)c, difference of log-means
 Model 1, β (95% CI) 0 Ref. 0.01 (− 006, 0.08) − 0.17 (− 0.25, − 0.10) − 0.13 (− 0.22, − 0.04) < 0.001
 Model 2, β (95% CI) 0 Ref. 0.02 (− 0.05, 0.09) − 0.14 (− 0.21, − 0.06) − 0.09 (− 0.17, 0.006) < 0.001
 Model 3, β (95% CI) 0 Ref. 0.03 (− 0.05, 0.09) − 0.14 (− 0.21, − 0.06) − 0.09 (− 0.17, 0.02) 0.001
  1. Number of morbidities includes the following self-reported physician-diagnosed diseases (coronary heart disease, stroke and heart failure, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, respiratory disease, hip fracture, urinary infection, sleep apnea, depression, Alzheimer’s disease, cirrhosis, Parkinson’s disease, stomach ulcers, intestinal polyps, cataracts, periodontal disease, cancer)
  2. Model 1: adjusted for sex, age, educational level (no formal or primary education, secondary education, university)
  3. Model 2: Adjusted for Model 1 + smoking (never, former, current), total energy intake (kcal/day), and body mass index
  4. Model 3: Model 2 + prevalence of cancer, respiratory disease, depression, number of morbidities (excluding the previously mentioned conditions) and number of drug treatments
  5. HDL-C high density lipoprotein cholesterol, Hs-CRP highly sensitive C-reactive protein, HOMA-IR Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance, MEDLIFE Mediterranean lifestyle
  6. aAbdominal obesity: waist circumference ≥ 102 cm in men, and ≥ 88 in women
  7. bHDL-C level < 40 mg/dl in men or < 50 in women
  8. cValues are presented for the logarithmic of the hs-CRP