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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the ENRICA cohort according to quartiles of the MEDLIFE index

From: Association between the Mediterranean lifestyle, metabolic syndrome and mortality: a whole-country cohort in Spain

  Mediterranean lifestyle index (MEDLIFE) p-value*
Q1 (5–11 p) Q2 (12–13 p) Q3 (14–15 p) Q4 (16–23 p)
Number of participants 3042 3435 2917 1696  
MEDLIFE score, range 0–27 p 10.0 (1.16) 12.5 (0.50) 14.5 (0.50) 16.8 (1.09) < 0.001
Block 1: Mediterranean food consumption, 0–15 p 3.8 (1.25) 5.1 (1.24) 6.2 (1.23) 7.6 (1.38) < 0.001
Block 2: Mediterranean eating habits, 0–6 p 3.6 (0.87) 3.9 (0.82)) 4.2 (0.80) 4.5 (0.77) < 0.001
Block 3: Mediterranean physical activity, rest, social habits and conviviality, 0–6 p 2.6 (1.13) 3.5 (1.16) 4.1 (1.1) 4.7 (1.0) < 0.001
Sex, female, % 54.9 53.0 52.5 52.4 0.189
Age, years 47.8 (17.0) 45.8 (16.1) 45.9 (16.0) 46.3 (15.0) 0.311
Educational level, % < 0.001
 ≤ Primary 30.3 27.2 24.7 22.6  
 Secondary 44.4 43.9 43.5 40.7  
 University 25.4 29.0 31.9 36.7  
Smoking status, % < 0.001
 Never 44.2 47.7 50.3 48.5  
 Former 21.8 24.3 24.7 29.3  
 Current 34.0 28.0 25.0 22.2  
BMI, kg/m2 26.8 (4.8) 26.6 (4.6) 26.3 (4.3) 26.2 (4.1) < 0.001
Energy intake, kcal/day 2274 (944) 2232 (864) 2226 (747) 2238 (683) 0.08
Number of drug treatments 0.71 (1.32) 0.65 (1.26) 0.61 (1.22) 0.62 (1.21) 0.006
Morbiditiesa, % 44.6 40.0 36.3 34.6 < 0.001
Number of morbidities 0.66 (1.0) 0.63 (0.95) 0.56 (0.90) 0.52 (0.88) < 0.001
Chronic conditions
 Depression, % 7.9 7.2 5.4 4.2 < 0.001
 Cancer, % 1.0 0.8 0.9 0.7 0.59
 Respiratory disease, % 8.1 7.0 6.5 5.5 0.005
Components of the metabolic syndrome
 Abdominal obesityb 36.8 34.4 31.9 28.1 < 0.001
 Fasting blood glucose 100–126 mg/dl, n 5.3 5.1 4.8 3.6 0.046
 Blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mmHg, 44.9 45.6 42.1 42.9 0.021
 Triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dl 18.7 16.9 15.6 14.2 < 0.001
 Low HDL-Cc 27.9 26.4 23.4 20.5 < 0.001
 HOMA-IR 2.1 (1.70) 2.0 (1.6) 1.9 (1.4) 1.8 (1.3) < 0.001
 Hs-CRP, geometric mean (standard error) 0.14 (0.0) 0.14 (0.0) 0.12 (0.0) 0.12 (0.0) < 0.001
  1. Continuous variables are expressed as mean (standard deviation)
  2. BMI body mass index, kcal kilocalories, CVD cardiovascular disease, Hs-CRP highly sensitive C-reactive protein, HOMA-IR Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance, m meters, MET metabolic equivalent of task, p points
  3. *Continuous variables were compared across categories of MEDLIFE using anova; categorical variables were compared using chi-squared tests
  4. aAt least one self-reported physician-diagnosed disease (coronary heart disease, stroke and heart failure, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, respiratory disease, hip fracture, urinary infection, sleep apnea, depression, Alzheimer’s disease, cirrhosis, Parkinson’s disease, stomach ulcers, intestinal polyps, cataracts, periodontal disease, cancer)
  5. bAbdominal obesity: waist circumference ≥ 102 cm in men, and ≥ 88 in women
  6. cHDL-C level < 40 mg/dl in men or < 50 in women