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Table 5 Factors for outcomes of interest using the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model

From: Diabetes and Covid-19 among hospitalized patients in Saudi Arabia: a single-centre retrospective study

Risk factor Outcomes
Mortality ICU admission Intubation
HR 95% CI p-value HR 95% CI p-value HR 95% CI p-value
Age > 55 years 3.0 1.7–5.3 < 0.001 1.1 0.7–1.7 0.62 1.4 0.9–2.4 0.14
Male 1.4 0.9–2.4 0.17 1.2 0.8–1.8 0.44 1.4 0.8–2.4 0.22
Comorbidities
 Obesity 1.0 0.6–1.6 0.93 1.2 0.8–1.7 0.47 1.1 0.7–1.8 0.73
 Hypertension 0.8 0.4–1.6 0.55 1.0 0.5–1.9 0.97 1.0 0.5–2.1 0.92
 Diabetes mellitus 1.2 0.7–2.3 0.49 1.0 0.6–1.7 0.96 1.2 0.6–2.2 0.60
 Cardiovascular disease 1.8 0.7–4.4 0.23 1.2 0.5–3.1 0.64 1.0 0.3–3.0 0.96
 Chronic kidney disease 0.7 0.2–2.0 0.49 1.0 0.4–2.5 0.95 0.7 0.2–2.5 0.61
 Congestive heart failure 3.5 1.4–8.3 0.006 1.9 0.7–5.1 0.19 2.8 1.0–7.6 0.048
 Stroke 1.3 0.5–3.8 0.61 1.0 0.4–3.0 0.95 1.9 0.7–5.2 0.20
 Smoking 5.8 2.0–17.2 0.002 5.2 1.8–14.8 0.002 7.1 2.4–20.9 < 0.001
Medications
 β-Blocker use 1.7 1.0–2.9 0.04 1.7 1.1–2.8 0.02 1.6 0.9–2.8 0.11
 ACE inhibitor use 0.7 0.3–1.4 0.29 1.0 0.6–1.8 0.86 0.9 0.4–1.7 0.66
 ARB Use 1.3 0.6–2.6 0.46 1.7 0.8–3.5 0.14 1.4 0.6–3.3 0.38
Laboratory investigations
 RBG (≥ 11.1 mmol/l) 1.2 0.7–1.9 0.54 1.5 1.0–2.2 0.04 1.6 1.0–2.5 0.07
 FPG (≥ 7.0 mmol/l) 1.2 0.7–2.2 0.53 1.0 0.6–1.6 0.90 1.1 0.6–1.9 0.81
 HbA1c > 9.0% 0.7 0.3–1.3 0.25 1.0 0.6–1.6 0.98 0.9 0.5–1.8 0.85
 Bilateral lung infiltrates 1.9 1.1–3.3 0.02 1.4 0.9–2.1 0.14 2.0 1.1–3.4 0.017
 Neutrophil count > 7.5 1.4 0.9–2.2 0.19 1.6 1.1–2.4 0.02 1.5 0.9–2.5 0.09
 Creatinine > 90 µmol/l 2.1 1.3–3.5 0.004 1.8 1.2–2.8 0.006 2.1 1.3–3.6 0.003
 ALT > 65 U/l 1.3 0.8–2.1 0.35 1.6 1.1–2.4 0.02 1.4 0.9–2.4 0.17
 25(OH)D < 12.5 nmol/l 7.0 1.7–28.2 0.007 3.0 0.7–13.4 0.16 2.0 0.4–10.1 0.39
  1. Comorbidities adjusted for one another + age, BMI and sex; Medications and Lab investigations were adjusted for age, BMI and Sex; p < 0.05 considered significant