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Table 3 Clinical characteristics of Covid-19 patients on admission

From: Diabetes and Covid-19 among hospitalized patients in Saudi Arabia: a single-centre retrospective study

Parameters All Males Females p-value* Non-DM DM p-value**
N 439 300 139 139 300
Chest X-ray
No infiltrates
131 (30.4) 94 (31.8) 37 (27.4) NS 61 (43.9) 70 (23.5) < 0.001
Unilateral infiltrates 43 (10.0) 31 (10.5) 12 (8.9)   7 (5.3) 36 (12.1)  
Bilateral infiltrates 257 (59.6) 171 (57.8) 86 (61.9)   65 (48.9) 192 (64.4)  
Complete blood count
Hemoglobin (g/l) (120–160) 130 ± 1.2 134.6 ± 1.4 120.4 ± 1.7 < 0.001 131.2 ± 2.2 129.6 ± 1.3 NS
WBC count (4.0–11.0) 8.0 ± 0.2 8.3 ± 0.3 7.3 ± 0.3 NS 8.0 ± 0.4 8.0 ± 0.3 NS
Platelet count (140–450) 249.7 ± 4.7 244.7 ± 5.7 260.5 ± 8.3 0.04 249.6 ± 8.4 249.7 ± 5.7 NS
Lymphocyte (1–5) 1.3 ± 0.1 1.2 ± 0.1 1.4 ± 0.1 NS 1.5 ± 0.2 1.2 ± 0.1 NS
Neutrophils (2.0–7.5) 6.0 ± 0.2 6.4 ± 0.3 5.3 ± 0.3 0.04 5.8 ± 0.3 6.1 ± 0.3 NS
d-dimer (µg/ml) (0.22–0.45) 2.2 ± 0.2 2.3 ± 0.2 2.0 ± 0.2 NS 1.7 ± 0.2 2.4 ± 0.2 NS
Liver profile
 ALT (U/l) (20–65) 57.6 ± 3.1 62.3 ± 3.2 47.1 ± 7.1 NS 64.7 ± 5.8 54.4 ± 3.7 NS
 AST (U/l) (15–37) 60.8 ± 3.1 62.5 ± 2.9 57.0 ± 7.4 NS 68.1 ± 6.9 57.6 ± 3.2 NS
 LDH (U/l) (84–246) 455.2 ± 11.9 475.3 ± 14.7 409.0 ± 19.5 0.003 440.2 ± 26.4 461.7 ± 12.7 NS
Renal Profile
 BUN (mmol/l) (2.5–6.4) 7.7 ± 0.4 7.8 ± 0.5 7.4 ± 0.6 NS 6.6 ± 0.7 8.2 ± 0.5 NS
 Creatinine (µmol/l) (49–90) 123.6 ± 8.0 129.6 ± 9.8 110.6 ± 13.8 NS 110.4 ± 12.3 129.7 ± 10.2 NS
 Na (mmol/l) (136–145) 136.8 ± 0.3 137.0 ± 0.3 136.3 ± 0.5 NS 137.8 ± 0.5 136.4 ± 0.3 NS
 K (mmol/l) (3.5–5.1) 4.4 ± 0.1 4.4 ± 0.05 4.6 ± 0.3 NS 4.2 ± 0.1 4.6 ± 0.1 NS
Lipid profile
 Triglycerides (mmol/l) 2.0 ± 0.09 2.1 ± 0.1 1.9 ± 0.1 NS 1.6 ± 0.1 2.1 ± 0.1 0.03
 HDL-Cholesterol (mmol/l) 0.88 ± 0.05 0.8 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.05 NS 0.8 ± 0.05 0.9 ± 0.06 NS
 LDL-Cholesterol (mmol/l) 2.0 ± 0.08 2.0 ± 0.1 2.0 ± 0.1 NS 2.0 ± 0.2 2.0 ± 0.09 NS
Inflammatory markers
 Ferritin (µg/ml) (13–150) 942.6 ± 54.6 1116.3 ± 72.7 570.7 ± 60.9 < 0.001 859.2 ± 90.5 980.7 ± 67.9 0.049
 Procalcitonin (ng/ml) (0–0.046) 2.6 ± 0.6 2.0 ± 0.6 3.9 ± 1.5 NS 4.2 ± 1.8 2.0 ± 0.6 NS
 ESR (mm/h) (0–24) 70.5 ± 2.0 67.5 ± 2.3 77.2 ± 3.6 NS 63.1 ± 3.8 74.0 ± 2.2 NS
 CRP (mg/l) (< 10.0) 104.8 ± 3.8 110.6 ± 4.8 91.2 ± 5.7 0.003 97.3 ± 7.3 107.9 ± 4.4 NS
 IL-6 (pg/ml) (1.5–7.0) 172.6 ± 28.3 183.5 ± 37.2 145.4 ± 34.7 NS 143.5 ± 42.3 183.7 ± 35.6 NS
Thyroid profile
 TSH (µIU/ml) (0.25–5.0) 2.1 ± 0.5 2.1 ± 0.7 2.1 ± 0.5 NS 1.7 ± 0.2 2.2 ± 0.7 NS
 FT4 (pmol/l) (10–24.5) 16.4 ± 0.3 16.4 ± 0.3 16.5 ± 0.6 NS 15.6 ± 0.5 16.8 ± 0.4 0.02
Glycemic profile
 HbA1c (%) 8.0 ± 0.1 7.9 ± 0.2 8.1 ± 0.2 NS 5.5 ± 0.1 10.6 ± 0.3 < 0.001
 Fasting Glucose (mmol/l) 9.2 ± 0.3 9.1 ± 0.3 9.6 ± 0.5 NS 5.8 ± 0.05 8.6 ± 0.1 < 0.001
Other markers
 Corrected Ca (mmol/l) (2.1–2.55) 2.3 ± 0.01 2.31 ± 0.01 2.34 ± 0.01 0.02 2.3 ± 0.01 2.3 ± 0.01 NS
 25(OH)D (nmol/l) (75–250) 40.4 ± 2.4 39.0 ± 2.8 43.1 ± 4.4 NS 38.1 ± 6.2 41.1 ± 2.5 NS
  1. *Denotes p-values adjusted for age and BMI; **denotes p-values adjusted for age, sex and BMI; significant at p < 0.05