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Table 1 General characteristics of Covid-19 Patients

From: Diabetes and Covid-19 among hospitalized patients in Saudi Arabia: a single-centre retrospective study

Parameters All Males Females p-value
N (%) 439 (100) 300 (68.3) 139 (31.7)  
Age (years)
Median (min–max)
55 (19–101) 54 (19–87) 59 (20–101) 0.03
BMI (kg/m2) 29.7 ± 6.7 28.8 ± 5.8 31.5 ± 8.0 0.001
Nationality (%)
 Saudi 218 (49.7) 123 (41.0) 95 (68.3) < 0.001
 Arab (non-Saudi) 100 (22.8) 73 (24.3) 27 (19.4)  
 Filipino 20 (4.6) 16 (5.3) 4 (2.9)  
 Bangladeshi 15 (3.4) 15 (5.0) 0  
 Pakistani 12 (2.7) 10 (3.3) 2 (1.4)  
 Indian 49 (11.2) 47 (15.7) 2 (1.4)  
 Afghani 4 (0.9) 3 (1.0) 1 (0.7)  
 Others 21 (4.8) 12 (4.3) 8 (5.8)  
Comorbidities (%)
 Obesity 178 (42.2) 101 (35.3) 77 (56.6) < 0.001
 Hypertension 187 (42.6) 109 (36.3) 78 (56.1) < 0.001
 Diabetes mellitus* 300 (68.3) 200 (66.7) 100 (71.9) NS
 Cardiovascular disease 44 (10.0) 31 (10.3) 13 (9.4) NS
 Congestive heart failure 18 (4.1) 12 (4.0) 6 (4.3) NS
 Chronic kidney disease 22 (5.0) 13 (4.3) 9 (6.5) NS
 Stroke 17 (3.9) 10 (3.3) 7 (5.0) NS
 Smoking 9 (2.6) 7 (3.2) 2 (1.6) 0.05
 Vitamin D deficiency** 112 (74.7) 75 (75.8) 37 (72.5) NS
Medications (%)
 β-Blockers 73 (16.6) 50 (16.7) 23 (16.9) NS
 ACE inhibitors 48 (10.9) 33 (11.0) 15 (10.8) NS
 ARB 63 (14.4) 31 (10.3) 32 (23.5) < 0.001
 CCB 95 (21.8) 55 (18.3) 40 (29.4) 0.03
 Statins 111 (25.5) 69 (23.1) 42 (30.9) NS
 GLP-1 agonists 5 (1.1) 3 (1.0) 2 (1.5) NS
 Insulin 63 (14.4) 28 (9.4) 35 (25.7) < 0.001
 Oral hypoglycemic 148 (33.7) 89 (29.8) 59 (43.4) 0.006
 Anti-coagulants 19 (4.3) 9 (3.0) 10 (7.4) 0.04
 Anti-platelets 80 (18.2) 51 (17.0) 29 (21.3) NS
 Levothyroxine 25 (5.7) 9 (3.0) 16 (11.6) 0.001
  1. *DM cases were known + newly diagnosed; **Only 150 cases had vitamin D status; significant at p < 0.05