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Table 2 Crude and age-standardized average annual percentage change in rates by overall and different subgroups

From: Global trend of diabetes mortality attributed to vascular complications, 2000–2016

Subgroup trend Crude rates Age-standardized rates
AAPC 95% CI P * AAPC 95% CI P *
Total 3.6* 3.1 4.1 < 0.05 1.9* 1.4 2.4  < 0.05
By sex
 Male 4.1* 3.5 4.6  < 0.05 2.2* 1.7 2.7  < 0.05
 Female 3.2* 2.6 3.7  < 0.05 1.6* 1.1 2.1  < 0.05
By DM type
 T1DM 0.8 − 1.4 3 0.7 − 0.3 − 2.5 1.9 − 0.3
 T2DM 7.2* 6.3 8.2 14.9 7.2* 6.3 8.2 14.9
 Malnutrition-related DM − 7.6* − 12.8 − 2 − 2.6 − 8.7* − 14 − 3.1 − 3
 Other specified DM 1.3 − 5.9 9.1 0.4 − 0.4 − 7.3 7.1 − 0.1
 Unspecified DM 1.1 − 1.8 4 0.7 − 0.2 − 3 2.6 − 0.2
By complication
 Neurological 3.2* 1.9 4.5  < 0.05 1.7* 0.4 2.9  < 0.05
 Ophthalmic − 0.8 − 7.2 6.1 0.8 − 2.4 − 8.6 4.3 0.5
 Peripheral circulatory  < 0.05 − 1.3 1.4 1 − 4.5* − 5 − 3.9  < 0.05
 Renal 4.3* 2.7 5.9  < 0.05 2.7* 1.2 4.3  < 0.05
By region
 Africa 23.4* 12.2 35.8  < 0.05 20.7* 10.4 31.8  < 0.05
 Asia − 0.6 − 4.1 3 0.7 − 2.9 − 6.2 0.6 0.1
 Caribbean 3.6 − 0.4 7.8 0.1 1.9 − 2.4 6.4 0.4
 Europe 4.7* 2.6 6.8  < 0.05 3.5* 0.2 6.8  < 0.05
 Middle east 21.1* 13.2 29.6  < 0.05 18.7* 10.8 27.2  < 0.05
  1. AAPC means average annual percentage change, and the parametric method was used to calculate 95% CI; / denotes no available data
  2. *p value < 0.05