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Table 1 Baseline characteristics according to heart failure status

From: MR-proANP and incident cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

  No HF HFpEF low MR-proANP HFpEF high MR-proANP HFrEF p-value
n 646 27 114 19  
Age, year (median [IQR]) 64.4 [56.9–69.8] 60.2 [53.0–65.7] 69.8 [64.7–74.9] 72.2 [64.9–76.6]  < 0.001
Male, n (%) 433 (67.0) 10 (37.0) 67 (58.8) 15 (78.9) 0.003
Body mass index, kg/m2 (median [IQR]) 28.7 [26.0–32.8] 31.8 [28.9–38.2] 31.6 [28.0–34.2] 28.4 [26.0–31.3]  < 0.001
T2DM duration, year (median [IQR]) 11.0 [5.0–16.0] 15.0 [8.0–23.5] 15.0 [7.3–20.8] 12.0 [10.0–23.0]  < 0.001
Known ischemic heart disease, n (%) 97 (15.0) 2 (7.4) 42 (36.8) 9 (47.4)  < 0.001
Smoking, n (%)      0.903
 Never 276 (42.7) 13 (48.1) 47 (41.2) 8 (42.1)  
 Active 88 (13.6) 5 (18.5) 19 (16.7) 2 (10.5)  
 Former 282 (43.7) 9 (33.3) 48 (42.1) 9 (47.4)  
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg (mean (sd)) 134.6 (16.2) 134.8 (15.7) 139.1 (20.0) 141.3 (18.6) 0.029
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg (mean (sd)) 80.0 (10.8) 79.8 (10.1) 77.8 (10.9) 81.6 (9.3) 0.226
Heart rate, bpm (mean (sd)) 72.4 (11.2) 76.6 (9.7) 68.2 (10.8) 72.7 (11.6)  < 0.001
Angina, n (%) 44 (7.0) 6 (22.2) 23 (20.7) 4 (22.2)  < 0.001
Dyspnea, n (%) 162 (25.1) 27 (100) 114 (100) 8 (42.1)  < 0.001
New York Heart Association class, n (%)       < 0.001
 I 484 (74.9) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 11 (57.9)  
 II 117 (18.1) 13 (48.1) 66 (57.9) 5 (26.3)  
 III 38 (5.9) 14 (51.9) 43 (37.7) 3 (15.8)  
 IV 7 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 5 (4.4) 0 (0.0)  
MR-proANP, pmol/l (median [IQR]) 65 [42–99] 46 [32–56] 124 [89–202] 125 [94–209]  < 0.001
LDL cholesterol, mmol/l (median [IQR]) 2.0 [1.5–2.6] 2.1 [1.8–2.6] 1.9 [1.6–2.3] 2.1 [1.8–2.9] 0.468
Creatinine, μmol/l (median [IQR]) 77.0 [65.0–93.0] 69.5 [60.3–76.8] 97.0 [77.0–123.0] 78.0 [66.5–96.0]  < 0.001
Albuminuria, n (%) 153 (23.7) 5 (18.5) 37 (32.5) 6 (31.6) 0.077
HbA1c, mmol/mol (median [IQR]) 55.0 [48.0–65.0] 55.0 [48.5–71.0] 54.0 [48.0–67.0] 53.0 [44.5–69.0] 0.777
Hemoglobin, mmol/L (mean (SD)) 8.7 (0.9) 8.4 (0.8) 8.1 (1.0) 8.8 (0.9)  < 0.001
Treatment with
Metformin, n (%) 488 (75.5) 17 (63.0) 64 (56.1) 11 (57.9)  < 0.001
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, n (%) 69 (10.7) 4 (14.8) 9 (7.9) 1 (5.3) 0.586
Sulfonylurea, n (%) 106 (16.4) 2 (7.4) 16 (14.0) 5 (26.3) 0.335
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, n (%) 155 (24.0) 7 (25.9) 18 (15.8) 3 (15.8) 0.222
Insulin, n (%) 275 (42.6) 17 (63.0) 68 (59.6) 13 (68.4)  < 0.001
Beta-blocker, n (%) 129 (20.0) 5 (18.5) 54 (47.4) 10 (52.6)  < 0.001
ACE inhibitor, n (%) 256 (39.6) 6 (22.2) 37 (32.5) 10 (52.6) 0.081
Angiotensin-II receptor blocker, n (%) 241 (37.3) 10 (37.0) 56 (49.1) 7 (36.8) 0.123
Calcium channel blocker, n (%) 200 (31.0) 10 (37.0) 44 (38.6) 5 (26.3) 0.364
Diureticsa, n (%) 297 (46.0) 7 (25.9) 77 (67.5) 11 (57.9)  < 0.001
Statins, n (%) 508 (78.6) 22 (81.5) 88 (77.2) 12 (63.2) 0.419
Anti-platelet therapy, n (%) 423 (65.5) 16 (59.3) 90 (78.9) 15 (78.9) 0.019
  1. For patients with HFpEF, stratification according to low (< 60 pmol/l) or high MR-proANP level is presented. p-value for comparison of all four groups
  2. ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme; bpm, beats per minute; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; HFpEF, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; HFrEF, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction; IQR, interquartile range; LDL, low density lipoprotein; mm Hg, millimeters of mercury; MR-proANP, mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide; sd, standard deviation; T2D, type 2 diabetes mellitus
  3. aInclude loop diuretics, thiazides, or mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists