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Table 1 Characteristics of enrolled patients categorized based on a combination of ABI and  %MAP*

From: Use of the ankle-brachial index combined with the percentage of mean arterial pressure at the ankle to improve prediction of all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus: an observational study

Group Normal ABI (n = 5101) Low ABI (n = 468) P#
Subgroup Normal % MAP High  %MAP P Normal  %MAP High  %MAP P
(n = 4601) (n = 500) (n = 130) (n = 338)
Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean
Age (year) 64 ± 10 70 ± 12 < 0.001 65 ± 12 73 ± 12 < 0.001 < 0.001
Male, n (%) 2559 (55.6%) 203 (40.6%) < 0.001 66 (50.8%) 196 (58.0%) 0.192 < 0.001
Diabetes duration (year) 11 ± 7 14 ± 8 < 0.001 14 ± 8 15 ± 8 0.4 < 0.001
Currently smoking, n (%) 415 (9.0%) 32 (6.4%) 0.06 11 (8.5%) 26 (7.7%) 0.932 0.197
CVD history, n (%) 357 (7.8%) 72 (14.4%) < 0.001 22 (16.9%) 96 (28.4%) 0.015 < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 25.9 ± 4.1 25.3 ± 4.2 0.027 28.0 ± 5.0 25.0 ± 4.0 <0.001 < 0.001
Systolic BP (mmHg) 135 ± 19 144 ± 24 < 0.001 140 ± 20 145 ± 25 0.139 < 0.001
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 77 ± 12 76 ± 13 0.519 75 ± 15 74 ± 16 0.584 < 0.001
Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 8.2 ± 3.6 8.2 ± 3.4 0.999 8.3 ± 2.9 8.7 ± 3.8 0.76 0.066
HbA1c (%) 7.5 ± 1.6 7.6 ± 1.6 0.99 7.9 ± 2.0 7.8 ± 1.9 0.997 0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.1 ± 0.9 4.1 ± 1.0 0.966 4.1 ± 0.9 4.0 ± 1.0 0.881 0.188
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.3 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.4 0.999 1.2 ± 0.3 1.2 ± 0.3 0.915 < 0.001
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.6 ± 1.3 1.5 ± 1.2 0.637 2.0 ± 1.9 1.7 ± 1.1 0.193 0.004
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 81 ± 28 70 ± 34 < 0.001 73 ± 34 53 ± 32 < 0.001 < 0.001
UACR ≥ 300 mg/g 498 (10.8%) 88 (17.6%) < 0.001 19 (14.6%) 94 (27.8%) 0.004 < 0.001
ABI 1.11 ± 0.09 1.07 ± 0.09 < 0.001 0.83 ± 0.08 0.68 ± 0.21 < 0.001 < 0.001
baPWV (cm/sec) 1823 ± 433 2087 ± 671 < 0.001 1867 ± 690 2176 ± 1143 < 0.001 < 0.001
Ankle  %MAP (%) 39.4 ± 3.1 47.2 ± 1.8 < 0.001 40.9 ± 3.1 50.4 ± 3.5 < 0.001 < 0.001
Antiplatelet, n (%) 1212 (26.3%) 178 (35.6%) < 0.001 64 (49.2%) 273 (80.8%) < 0.001 < 0.001
Statins, n (%) 3253 (70.7%) 351 (70.2%) 0.855 97 (74.6%) 250 (74.0%) 0.979 0.446
Hypertension, n (%) 3466 (75.3%) 414 (82.8%) < 0.001 115 (88.5%) 317 (93.8%) 0.081 < 0.001
Antihypertensive drugs, n (%) 2397 (52.1%) 307 (61.4%) < 0.001 87 (66.9%) 257 (76.0%) 0.06 < 0.001
ACE inhibitors or ARBs, n (%) 1714 (37.3%) 213 (42.6%) 0.022 58 (44.6%) 168 (49.7%) 0.377 < 0.001
α-blockers, n (%) 255 (5.5%) 74 (14.8%) < 0.001 11 (8.5%) 64 (18.9%) 0.009 < 0.001
β-blockers, n (%) 949 (20.6%) 138 (27.6%) < 0.001 38 (29.2%) 135 (39.9%) 0.041 < 0.001
Calcium channel blockers, n (%) 217 (4.7%) 28 (5.6%) 0.443 12 (9.2%) 37 (10.9%) 0.708 < 0.001
Diuretics, n (%) 396 (8.6%) 88 (17.6%) < 0.001 24 (18.5%) 95 (28.1%) 0.043 < 0.001
Insulin therapy, n (%) 1032 (22.4%) 159 (31.8%) < 0.001 42 (32.3%) 132 (39.1%) 0.213 < 0.001
Oral antihyperglycemic drugs 4175 (90.7%) 424 (84.8%) < 0.001 113 (86.9%) 254 (75.1%) 0.008 < 0.001
Insulin secretagogues, n (%) 1638 (35.6%) 190 (38.0%) 0.311 45 (34.6%) 96 (28.4%) 0.23 0.028
Metformin, n (%) 1838 (39.9%) 174 (34.8%) 0.029 54 (41.5%) 69 (20.4%) < 0.001 < 0.001
Thiazolidinediones, n (%) 2737 (59.5%) 287 (57.4%) 0.393 72 (55.4%) 191 (56.5%) 0.908 0.469
α-Glucosidase inhibitors, n (%) 530 (11.5%) 40 (8.0%) 0.022 17 (13.1%) 17 (5.0%) 0.005 < 0.001
DPP4 inhibitors, n (%) 1046 (22.7%) 95 (19.0%) 0.065 30 (23.1%) 51 (15.1%) 0.056 0.002
SGLT2 inhibitors, n (%) 415 (9.0%) 57 (11.4%) 0.096 8 (6.2%) 31 (9.2%) 0.384 0.212
Mortality, n (%) 165 (3.6%) 45 (9.0%) < 0.001 11 (8.5%) 45 (13.3%) 0.197 < 0.001
CVD, n (%) 40 (0.9%) 19 (3.8%)   4 (3.1%) 27 (8.0%)   
Cancer, n (%) 87 (1.9%) 12 (2.4%)   2 (1.5%) 2 (0.6%)   
Others, n (%) 38 (0.8%) 14 (2.8%)   5 (3.8%) 16 (4.7%)   
Incidence of mortality (deaths/100 person-years) 2.0 5.0   4.8 8.3   
  1. Continuous data are presented as the mean ± SD, and categorical data are presented as numbers (percentages)
  2. *: low ABI was defined as an ABI value ≤ 0.90 and normal ABI > 0.90; high  %MAP was defined as a  %MAP > 45% and normal  %MAP ≤ 45%
  3. #P: denotes a significant difference across the four subgroups
  4. P: post hoc comparison between two subgroups in patients with normal ABI; P: post hoc comparison between two subgroups in patients with low ABI
  5. %MAP percentage of mean arterial pressure, ABI ankle-brachial index, ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme, ARB angiotensin II receptor antagonist, baPWV brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, CVD cardiovascular disease, DPP4 dipeptidyl peptidase-4, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, HDL high-density lipoprotein, SD standard deviation, SGLT2 sodium glucose cotransporter 2, UACR urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio