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Table 2 Hazard ratios for type 2 diabetes incidence among Israelis of Ethiopian origin and native Israelis

From: Adolescent BMI and early-onset type 2 diabetes among Ethiopian immigrants and their descendants: a nationwide study

  Native Israelis Ethiopian Israelis
Underweight Normal BMI High BMI Underweight Normal BMI High BMI
Men
Number of diabetes incidences 5 52 80 12 65 12
Mean follow-up (years; ± SD) 13.3 ± 4.7 12.8 ± 4.6 12.1 ± 4.5 13.1 ± 4.6 13.0 ± 4.6 10.4 ± 3.8
Cumulative follow-up (person-years) 98,635.6 546,719.6 129,126.1 69,269.4 138,542.1 10,687.5
Incident rate (per 105 person-years) 5.1 9.5 62.0 17.3 46.9 112.3
Mean age at diagnosis (years; ± SD) 28.7 ± 5.2 30.9 ± 4.6 30.2 ± 4.2 30.6 ± 2.9 30.8 ± 4.2 27.5 ± 3.5
HR (unadjusted) 0.51 Reference 7.24 1.78 4.88 17.93
95% CI 0.20–1.26 5.11–10.27 0.95–3.33 3.39–7.03 9.55–33.66
p-value 0.15 1.2 × 10–28 0.07 1.6 × 10–17 2.7 × 10–19
HR (adjusted*) 0.52 Reference 6.93 1.18 3.41 15.83
95% CI 0.21–1.31 4.86–9.88 0.60–2.29 2.29–5.06 8.29–30.25
p-value 0.17 1.3 × 10–26 0.63 1.4 × 10–9 6.3 × 10–17
Men with unimpaired health
Number of new diabetes cases 3 36 53 9 44 11
HR (adjusted*) 0.46 Reference 6.91 1.26 3.04 20.15
95% CI 0.14–1.50 4.49–10.65 0.59–2.66 1.89–4.87 10.01–40.56
p-value 0.20 1.7 × 10–18 0.55 4.1 × 10–6 3.9 × 10–17
Second-generation (Israeli-born) Ethiopians
Number of new diabetes incidences 5 52 80 2 5 6
HR (adjusted*) 0.52 Reference 6.96 2.25 4.42 29.10
95% CI 0.21–1.31 4.88–9.93 0.54–9.43 1.71–11.42 11.99–70.61
p-value 0.17 1.1 × 10–26 0.27 2.1 × 10–3 9.2 × 10–14
Women
Number of diabetes incidences 0 16 34 4 19 6
Mean follow-up (years; ± SD) 12.4 ± 4.2 12.2 ± 4.3 11.8 ± 4.2 12.2 ± 4.1 12.3 ± 4.2 11.0 ± 3.9
Cumulative follow-up (person-years) 58,210.7 282,466.6 60,968.6 38,017.4 80,045.6 11,104.7
Incident rate (per 105 person-years) 5.7 55.8 10.5 23.7 54.0
Mean age at diagnosis (years; ± SD) 26.1 ± 4.4 27.8 ± 3.7 24.6 ± 4.4 29.8 ± 4.0 26.1 ± 4.7
HR (unadjusted) Reference 10.15 1.87 4.17 10.79
95% CI 5.60–18.39 0.62–5.59 2.15–8.12 4.22–27.60
p-value 2.1 × 10–14 0.26 2.6 × 1–5 6.9 × 10–7
HR (adjusted*) Reference 9.66 1.13 2.40 7.04
95% CI 5.32–17.54 0.36–3.56 1.13–5.09 2.61–18.94
p-value 8.9 × 10–14 0.08 0.02 1.1 × 10–4
  1. The table shows follow-up data, incident case data, and hazard ratios (HRs) in unadjusted and multivariable models (adjusted for birth year, age at study entry, education level, and cognitive score) in men and women. In men, two additional sub-analyses were done: HRs for individuals with unimpaired health and HRs for those Israeli-born (second-generation of immigrants)
  2. CI confidence interval, SD standard deviation, HR hazard ratio