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Table 1 Variables evaluated during cardiopulmonary examination grouped by their physiological value

From: Type 2 diabetes and reduced exercise tolerance: a review of the literature through an integrated physiology approach

Physiological mechanism Imaging-CPET primary variables CPET secondary variables
Whole body VO2, work VO2 %
Cardiovascular system HR, BP VO2/HR
Cardiac electric activity ECG morphology and rythm Chronotropic insufficiency, impaired heart rate recovery
Ventilation VE, VT VE/VCO2, VE/VO2
Gas exchange SpO2, PETCO2, PETO2 AT
Skeletal muscle Borg scale Δ(a − v)O2, AT
Metabolism RER AT
Systolic function LVEF, S’, TAPSE Systolic reserve
Diastolic function E/A, E/e’, DT Diastolic reserve
  1. We indicated “primary” those directly evaluated by CPET hardware, while those derived by mathematical modeling are indicated as “secondary”
  2. ECG, electrocardiography; HR, heart rate; BP, blood pressure; RER, respiratory exchange ratio; VO2, oxygen uptake; VE, minute ventilation; VT, tidal volume; VO2 %, percentage of peak oxygen uptake with respect to maximal theoretic VO2; AT, anaerobic threshold; RER, respiratory exchange ratio, E/A, E/A wave ratio; E/e’, E/e’ wave ratio; DT, deceleration time, TAPSE, tricuspid annular systolic excursion