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Table 1 General characteristics of all male participants by diabetic complications

From: Associations between abdominal obesity indices and diabetic complications: Chinese visceral adiposity index and neck circumference

Characteristic Diabetic complications
CVD− CVD+ P DKD− DKD+ P DR− DR+ P
N 1373 755 1478 471 1224 265
Age, year 65.97 ± 8.65 70.11 ± 7.97 < 0.001 66.97 ± 8.39 68.89 ± 8.94 < 0.001 67.55 ± 8.68 67.06 ± 8.14 0.401
Duration of diabetes, year 8 (3, 15) 10 (5, 18) < 0.001 8 (3, 15) 10 (6, 18) < 0.001 9 (4, 15) 10 (5, 18) 0.001
Current smoking, % 29.7 39.9 < 0.001 34.3 39.9 0.030 33.2 35.4 0.523
Beyond high school education, % 60.5 58.1 0.234 61.4 57.5 0.141 59.3 63.5 0.212
BMI, kg/m2 24.82 ± 3.37 25.31 ± 3.09 0.001 24.77 ± 3.25 25.6 ± 3.31 < 0.001 24.99 ± 3.29 24.97 ± 3.2 0.903
WC, cm 91.54 ± 9.25 93.7 ± 8.85 < 0.001 91.56 ± 8.82 94.57 ± 9.71 < 0.001 92.39 ± 9.15 92.43 ± 9.42 0.947
NC, cm 39.65 ± 3.14 40.12 ± 3.07 0.001 39.58 ± 3.07 40.57 ± 3.18 < 0.001 39.81 ± 3.08 40.04 ± 3.01 0.261
HC, cm 99.31 ± 6.97 100.53 ± 6.57 < 0.001 99.44 ± 6.75 100.66 ± 7.16 0.001 99.75 ± 6.86 99.86 ± 7.01 0.817
WHR 0.92 ± 0.06 0.93 ± 0.06 < 0.001 0.92 ± 0.06 0.94 ± 0.06 < 0.001 0.93 ± 0.06 0.92 ± 0.06 0.830
LAP 40.0 (24.2, 63.5) 40.6 (27.4, 63.4) 0.280 38.1 (23.5, 59.3) 45.2 (31.5, 72.0) < 0.001 40.7 (25.0, 63.4) 39.1 (23.8, 59.7) 0.246
VAI 1.84 (1.17, 2.95) 1.95 (1.23, 2.88) 0.470 1.78 (1.14, 2.79) 2.01 (1.38, 3.32) < 0.001 1.88 (1.20, 2.93) 1.83 (1.18, 2.72) 0.287
CVAI 129.72 ± 40.74 141.57 ± 38.26 < 0.001 130.1 ± 39.21 145.14 ± 41.01 < 0.001 134.42 ± 40.1 133.8 ± 42.05 0.819
FPG, mmol/L 7.83 ± 2.38 7.82 ± 2.39 0.904 7.53 ± 2.09 8.69 ± 2.92 < 0.001 7.79 ± 2.32 8.25 ± 2.66 0.004
HbA1c, % 7.56 ± 1.41 7.63 ± 1.41 0.303 7.41 ± 1.27 8.14 ± 1.65 < 0.001 7.52 ± 1.4 7.89 ± 1.47 < 0.001
TC, mmol/L 5.01 ± 1.04 4.47 ± 1.14 < 0.001 4.82 ± 1.06 4.86 ± 1.25 0.483 4.81 ± 1.08 4.84 ± 1.05 0.763
TG, mmol/L 1.48 (1.05, 2.18) 1.42 (1.05, 2.01) 0.129 1.41 (1.02, 2.04) 1.57 (1.15, 2.24) < 0.001 1.36 (1.03, 1.97) 1.46 (1.05, 2.13) 0.133
HDL, mmol/L 1.13 ± 0.26 1.08 ± 0.24 < 0.001 1.12 ± 0.26 1.09 ± 0.25 0.013 1.11 ± 0.26 1.1 ± 0.24 0.866
LDL, mmol/L 3.14 ± 0.74 2.75 ± 0.81 < 0.001 3 ± 0.76 3.01 ± 0.85 0.827 3.01 ± 0.78 3.02 ± 0.76 0.741
CCA plaque, % 63.6 77.4 < 0.001 67.4 71.7 0.096 68.2 71.9 0.271
Ln ACR, mg/g 2.71 ± 1.26 2.96 ± 1.37 < 0.001 2.2 ± 0.65 4.6 ± 1.12 < 0.001 2.71 ± 1.27 3.02 ± 1.42 0.001
eGFR, mL/min per 1.73 m2 92.65 ± 16.32 86.04 ± 17.72 < 0.001 92.16 ± 14.7 85.96 ± 21.24 < 0.001 89.94 ± 17.32 91.27 ± 16.73 0.254
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 142.84 ± 19.52 146.21 ± 18.67 < 0.001 142.14 ± 18.88 151.19 ± 19.16 < 0.001 143.21 ± 19.08 147.27 ± 20.26 0.002
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 80.73 ± 11 79.11 ± 11.33 0.002 80.05 ± 10.87 81.06 ± 12.04 0.112 80.13 ± 11.24 80.3 ± 12.13 0.821
  1. The data are summarized as the mean ± SD or median (interquartile range) for continuous variables or as a numerical proportion for categorical variables
  2. CVD cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, DKD diabetic kidney disease, DR diabetic retinopathy, BMI body mass index, FPG fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, TG triglycerides, TC total cholesterol, CCA common carotid artery, Ln ACR log-transformed albumin to creatinine ratio, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, NC neck circumference, HC hip circumference, WC waist circumference, VAI visceral adiposity index, LAP lipid accumulation product, CVAI Chinese visceral adiposity index, WHR waist-to-hip ratio