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Table 1 Characteristics of the concordance/discordance groups according to low or high HbA1C and TyG index categories

From: Discordance between the triglyceride glucose index and fasting plasma glucose or HbA1C in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention predicts cardiovascular events: a cohort study from China

HbA1C/TyGa Total Low/Low Low/High High/Low High/High P value
Concordance/discordance groups
 N (%) 9285(100) 2713(29.2) 1516(16.3) 1925(20.7) 3131(33.7)
 Age, year 59.9 ± 10.05 59.3 ± 10.35 56.7 ± 10.35 63.2 ± 8.89 59.9 ± 9.72 < 0.001
Male, n (%) 6996 (75.3) 2176 (80.2) 1177 (77.6) 1437 (74.6) 2206 (70.5) < 0.001
BMI, kg/m2 26.2 ± 9.21 25.5 ± 9.91 26.6 ± 6.58 26.0 ± 8.46 26.9 ± 10.04 < 0.001
Heart rate, bpm 72 ± 12.72 70.4 ± 12.94 72.3 ± 12.98 71.6 ± 11.72 73.5 ± 12.81 < 0.001
SBP, mmHg 128.6 ± 20.86 128.2 ± 19.87 127.2 ± 21.12 128.7 ± 21.68 129.5 ± 21.03 0.004
Medical history and risk factors, n (%)
 Current smoker 3497 (37.7) 1055 (38.9) 624 (41.2) 641 (33.3) 1177 (37.6) < 0.001
 Hypertension 6104 (65.7) 1608 (59.3) 937 (61.8) 1325 (68.8) 2234 (71.4) < 0.001
 Diabetes 4074 (43.9) 136 (5) 106 (7) 1213 (63) 2619 (83.6) < 0.001
 Dyslipidaemia 7131 (76.8) 2046 (75.4) 1206 (79.6) 1413 (73.4) 2466 (78.8) < 0.001
 Previous MI 1156 (12.5) 292 (10.8) 165 (10.9) 251 (13) 448 (14.3) < 0.001
 Previous stroke 485 (5.2) 139 (5.1) 67 (4.4) 110 (5.7) 169 (5.4) 0.367
 Previous PCI 2264 (24.4) 545 (20.1) 304 (20.1) 526 (27.3) 889 (28.4) < 0.001
 Previous CABG 220 (2.4) 42 (1.5) 27 (1.8) 58 (3) 93 (3) < 0.001
Laboratory tests
 FPG, mmol/L 7.1 ± 2.61 5.5 ± 0.8 6.1 ± 1.56 6.6 ± 1.55 9.1 ± 3.14 < 0.001
 HbA1C, % 6.6 ± 1.39 5.6 ± 0.31 5.6 ± 0.31 7 ± 1.04 7.8 ± 1.46 < 0.001
 TC, mmol/L 4.1 ± 1.07 4 ± 1 4.5 ± 1.07 3.8 ± 0.95 4.3 ± 1.1 < 0.001
 TG, mmol/L 1.43(1.03-2.07) 1.1(0.86-1.35) 2.2(1.87-2.75) 1(0.79-1.22) 1.96(1.52-2.68) < 0.001
 HDL-C, mmol/L 1.1 ± 0.25 1.1 ± 0.27 1 ± 0.23 1.1 ± 0.26 1 ± 0.22 < 0.001
 LDL-C, mmol/L 2.4 ± 0.88 2.4 ± 0.88 2.6 ± 0.92 2.2 ± 0.82 2.5 ± 0.88 < 0.001
 Non-HDL-C, mmol/L 3.1 ± 1.02 2.8 ± 0.93 3.5 ± 1.01 2.7 ± 0.87 3.3 ± 1.05 < 0.001
 TyG index 9 ± 0.67 8.4 ± 0.35 9.3 ± 0.37 8.5 ± 0.31 9.6 ± 0.54 < 0.001
ACS status, n (%)
 Unstable angina 7883 (84.9) 2293 (84.5) 1231 (81.2) 1718 (89.2) 2641 (84.4) < 0.001
 NSTEMI 1152 (12.4) 330 (12.2) 224 (14.8) 178 (9.2) 420 (13.4) < 0.001
 STEMI 829 (8.9) 260 (9.6) 173 (11.4) 130 (6.8) 266 (8.5) < 0.001
Medication at discharge, n (%)
 Metformin 807 (8.7) 21 (0.8) 16 (1.1) 187 (9.7) 583 (18.6) < 0.001
 Sulfonylurea 469 (5.1) 16 (0.6) 8 (0.5) 131 (6.8) 314 (10) < 0.001
 Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors 1656 (17.8) 52 (1.9) 36 (2.4) 464 (24.1) 1104 (35.3) < 0.001
 Thiazolidinedione 20 (0.2) 3 (0.1) 1 (0.1) 6 (0.3) 10 (0.3) 0.147
 Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors 53 (0.6) 4 (0.1) 1 (0.1) 16 (0.8) 32 (1) < 0.001
 Oral antidiabetic agents 2108 (22.7) 67 (2.5) 47 (3.1) 578 (30) 1416 (45.2) < 0.001
 Insulin 1728 (18.6) 14 (0.5) 24 (1.6) 475 (24.7) 1215 (38.8) < 0.001
 Any antidiabetic agents 3314 (35.7) 75 (2.8) 65 (4.3) 920 (47.8) 2254 (72) < 0.001
 Aspirin 9062 (97.6) 2656 (97.9) 1484 (97.9) 1879 (97.6) 3043 (97.2) 0.281
 Clopidogrel 6316 (68) 1888 (69.6) 969 (63.9) 1368 (71.1) 2091 (66.8) < 0.001
 Ticagrelor 3131 (33.7) 883 (32.5) 562 (37.1) 596 (31) 1090 (34.8) 0.001
 ACEI/ARB 4165 (44.9) 1042 (38.4) 688 (45.4) 871 (45.2) 1564 (50) < 0.001
 β-Blocker 5980 (64.4) 1619 (59.7) 997 (65.8) 1204 (62.5) 2160 (69) < 0.001
Statin 9114 (98.2) 2671 (98.5) 1482 (97.8) 1897 (98.5) 3064 (97.9) 0.123
Ezetimibe 1712 (18.4) 460 (17) 327 (21.6) 304 (15.8) 621 (19.8) < 0.001
Angiographic coronary anatomy, n (%)
 Any left main disease 1459 (15.7) 426 (15.7) 235 (15.5) 316 (16.4) 482 (15.4) 0.799
 Multivessel disease 5412 (58.3) 1157 (42.6) 903 (59.6) 1147 (59.6) 2205 (70.4) < 0.001
 Others 3564 (38.4) 1448 (53.4) 540 (35.6) 720 (37.4) 856 (27.3) < 0.001
 CTO 1499 (16.1) 367 (13.5) 277 (18.3) 314 (16.3) 541 (17.3) < 0.001
 Lesions > 20 mm 5640 (60.7) 1111 (41) 853 (56.3) 1187 (61.7) 2489 (79.5) < 0.001
Treated vessel, n (%)
 LM 894 (9.6) 276 (10.2) 134 (8.8) 198 (10.3) 286 (9.1) 0.279
 LAD 4735 (51) 1426 (52.6) 728 (48) 1017 (52.8) 1564 (50) 0.007
 LCX 2693 (29) 774 (28.5) 471 (31.1) 520 (27) 928 (29.6) 0.051
 RCA 3704 (39.9) 1014 (37.4) 625 (41.2) 785 (40.8) 1280 (40.9) 0.017
 DCB 567 (6.1) 164 (6) 72 (4.7) 131 (6.8) 200 (6.4) 0.073
 FFR 67 (0.7) 26 (1) 8 (0.5) 19 (1) 14 (0.4) 0.044
 IVUS 247 (2.7) 65 (2.4) 48 (3.2) 53 (2.8) 81 (2.6) 0.501
OCT 156 (1.7) 59 (2.2) 28 (1.8) 23 (1.2) 46 (1.5) 0.049
Number of stents 2 (1–3) 2 (1–3) 2 (1–3) 2 (1–3) 2 (1–3) 0.075
Total length of stents, mm 32 (21–52) 30 (21–51) 32 (20.5–52) 33 (21–51) 33 (21–54) 0.417
  1. Values are mean ± SD, median (interquartile range), or n (%)
  2. BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, MI myocardial infarction, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, CABG Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, FPG fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C Glycosylated haemoglobin, TC total cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, TyG triglyceride glucose, NSTEMI non ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, STEMI ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, ACEI angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker, CTO chronic total occlusion, LM left-main artery, LAD left anterior descending artery, LCX left circumflex artery, RCA right coronary artery, DCB drug-coated balloon, FFR Fractional Flow Reserve, IVUS intravascular ultrasound, OCT optical coherence tomography
  3. aMedian HbA1C: 6.1%, Median TyG:8.92
  4. †p value for test of difference across the 4 concordance/discordance groups by the Chi square test for categorical variables or analysis of variance for continuous variables or Kruskal–Wallis test for nonparametric comparisons