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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics of patients with and without adverse event

From: Impacts of triglyceride-glucose index on prognosis of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome: results from an observational cohort study in China

  Total population (n = 798) Without event (n = 618) With event (n = 180) P value
Age, years 60.9 ± 8.3 60.3 ± 8.1 62.9 ± 8.6 < 0.001
Sex, male, n (%) 545 (68.3) 430 (69.6) 115 (63.9) 0.149
BMI, kg/m2 26.7 ± 3.2 26.7 ± 3.2 26.6 ± 3.2 0.772
Heart rate, bpm 71.7 ± 10.2 71.5 ± 9.8 72.1 ± 11.4 0.502
SBP, mmHg 131.8 ± 17.1 130.8 ± 16.3 135.1 ± 19.5 0.007
DBP, mmHg 76.8 ± 10.1 76.4 ± 9.8 78.1 ± 11.1 0.052
Smoking, n (%) 417 (52.3) 332 (53.7) 85 (47.2) 0.124
Drinking, n (%) 184 (23.1) 149 (24.1) 35 (19.4) 0.191
Family history of CAD, n (%) 93 (11.7) 73 (11.8) 20 (11.1) 0.796
Duration of diabetes, years 8.2 ± 4.3 8.0 ± 4.1 9.1 ± 4.7 0.007
Medical history, n (%)
 Hypertension 573 (71.8) 449 (72.7) 124 (68.9) 0.323
 Dyslipidemia 710 (89.0) 537 (86.9) 173 (96.1) 0.001
 Prior MI 175 (21.9) 118 (19.1) 57 (31.7) < 0.001
 Prior PCI 151 (18.9) 106 (17.2) 45 (25.0) 0.018
 Prior stroke 109 (13.7) 80 (12.9) 29 (16.1) 0.276
 Prior PVD 125 (15.7) 93 (15.0) 32 (17.8) 0.375
Laboratory results
 TGs, mg/dL 138.2 (97.2, 198.5) 127.6 (91.3, 174.8) 209.1 (134.9, 299.5) < 0.001
 TC, mg/dL 157.2 ± 39.7 153.5 ± 39.4 170.2 ± 38.2 < 0.001
 LDL-C, mg/dL 94.2 ± 33.1 93.2 ± 33.9 97.6 ± 29.8 0.112
 HDL-C, mg/dL 36.9 ± 8.7 37.3 ± 8.8 35.3 ± 8.0 0.005
 hs-CRP, mg/L 1.6 (0.7, 4.1) 1.5 (0.6, 3.9) 2.0 (0.9, 4.4) 0.011
 Creatinine, mg/dL 0.8 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.2 0.384
 eGFR, mL/(min * 1.73 m2) 96.5 ± 21.6 97.4 ± 21.7 93.5 ± 21.1 0.030
 Uric acid, μmol/L 328.0 ± 75.6 328.3 ± 75.3 327.0 ± 76.6 0.842
 FBG, mg/dL 127.7 (109.6, 157.0) 125.3 (108.1, 148.4) 141.5 (118.4, 173.3) < 0.001
 HbA1c, % 7.5 ± 1.3 7.3 ± 1.2 8.0 ± 1.3 < 0.001
 TyG index 9.1 ± 0.6 9.0 ± 0.6 9.6 ± 0.7 < 0.001
 LVEF, % 64.0 ± 6.6 64.3 ± 6.3 62.7 ± 7.5 0.010
Initial diagnosis, n (%) 0.149
 UA 650 (81.5) 510 (82.5) 140 (77.8)  
 NSTEMI 148 (18.5) 108 (17.5) 40 (22.2)  
Pre-admission medication, n (%)
 ACEI 79 (9.9) 62 (10.0) 17 (9.4) 0.816
 ARB 128 (16.0) 99 (16.0) 29 (16.1) 0.976
 DAPT 253 (31.7) 194 (31.4) 59 (32.8) 0.725
 Aspirin 427 (53.5) 325 (52.6) 102 (56.7) 0.334
 Clopidogrel 264 (33.1) 203 (32.8) 61 (33.9) 0.794
 β-blocker 166 (20.8) 127 (20.6) 39 (21.7) 0.745
 Statins 233 (29.2) 190 (30.7) 43 (23.9) 0.075
 Proton pump inhibitor 8 (1.0) 7 (1.1) 1 (0.6) 0.796
 Oral hypoglycemic agents 413 (51.8) 324 (52.4) 89 (49.4) 0.481
 Metformin 170 (21.3) 138 (22.3) 32 (17.8) 0.189
 Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor 185 (23.2) 140 (22.7) 45 (25.0) 0.512
 Sulfonylurea 126 (15.8) 102 (16.5) 24 (13.3) 0.304
 Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor 15 (1.9) 12 (1.9) 3 (1.7) 0.811
 Insulin 225 (28.2) 163 (26.4) 62 (34.4) 0.034
Post-discharge medication, n (%)
 ACEI 234 (29.3) 177 (28.6) 57 (31.7) 0.433
 ARB 384 (48.1) 294 (47.6) 90 (50.0) 0.566
 DAPT 796 (99.7) 617 (99.8) 179 (99.4) 0.934
 DAPT interruption in 12 months 12 (1.5) 9 (1.5) 3 (1.7) 0.838
 Aspirin 797 (99.9) 617 (99.8) 180 (100.0) 0.589
 Clopidogrel 797 (99.9) 618 (100.0) 179 (99.4) 0.226
 β-blocker 744 (93.2) 579 (93.7) 165 (91.7) 0.342
 Statins 787 (98.6) 611 (98.9) 176 (97.8) 0.459
 Statins interruption in 12 months 31 (3.9) 21 (3.4) 10 (5.6) 0.187
 Proton pump inhibitor 790 (99.0) 613 (99.2) 177 (98.3) 0.554
 Oral hypoglycemic agents 409 (51.3) 321 (51.9) 88 (48.9) 0.471
 Metformin 167 (20.9) 135 (21.8) 32 (17.8) 0.238
 Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor 181 (22.7) 137 (22.2) 44 (24.4) 0.521
 Sulfonylurea 123 (15.4) 99 (16.0) 24 (13.3) 0.380
 Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor 15 (1.9) 12 (1.9) 3 (1.7) 0.811
 Insulin 217 (27.2) 156 (25.2) 61 (33.9) 0.022
Angiographic data
 LM disease, n (%) 44 (5.5) 22 (3.6) 22 (12.2) < 0.001
 One-vessel disease, n (%) 167 (20.9) 146 (23.6) 21 (11.7) 0.001
 Two-vessel disease, n (%) 287 (36.0) 233 (37.7) 54 (30.0) 0.058
 Three-vessel disease, n (%) 344 (43.1) 239 (38.7) 105 (58.3) < 0.001
 Chronic total occlusion, n (%) 117 (14.7) 67 (10.8) 50 (27.8) < 0.001
 Diffuse lesion, n (%) 237 (29.7) 169 (27.3) 68 (37.8) 0.007
 Bifurcation lesion, n (%) 186 (23.3) 124 (20.1) 62 (34.4) < 0.001
 In-stent restenosis, n (%) 58 (7.3) 38 (6.1) 20 (11.1) 0.024
 SYNTAX score 12.0 ± 5.5 11.1 ± 5.1 15.2 ± 6.0 < 0.001
Procedural results
 Target vessel territory, n (%)
  LM 25 (3.1) 14 (2.3) 11 (6.1) 0.009
  LAD 513 (64.3) 393 (63.6) 120 (66.7) 0.449
  LCX 335 (42.0) 249 (40.3) 86 (47.8) 0.073
  RCA 398 (49.9) 300 (48.5) 98 (54.4) 0.164
 DES implantation, n (%) 785 (98.4) 608 (98.4) 177 (98.3) 0.964
 DCB use, n (%) 15 (1.9) 10 (1.6) 5 (2.8) 0.313
 Complete revascularization, n (%) 414 (51.9) 333 (53.9) 81 (45.0) 0.036
 Number of stents 2.1 ± 1.3 2.0 ± 1.2 2.4 ± 1.5 0.001
  1. Italic values indicate statistically significant associations
  2. BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, CAD coronary artery disease, MI myocardial infarction, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, PVD peripheral vascular disease, TGs triglycerides, TC total cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, FBG fasting blood glucose, HbA1c glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, TyG triglyceride glucose, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, UA unstable angina, NSTEMI non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, ACEI angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, DAPT dual antiplatelet therapy, LM left main artery, SYNTAX synergy between PCI with taxus and cardiac surgery, LAD left anterior descending artery, LCX left circumflex artery, RCA right coronary artery, DES drug-eluting stent, DCB drug-coated balloon