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Table 2 Association between HbA1c measures and microvascular disease risk with adjustment for patient demographics, comorbidities, antidiabetic treatments, and cardiovascular disease-related treatments

From: Comparative predictive ability of visit-to-visit HbA1c variability measures for microvascular disease risk in type 2 diabetes

Models HR (95% CI) Concordance (95% CI)
1st part of analyses: comparative predictive ability of various HbA1c measures for MVD riska
 Model with HbA1c-SD 1.1371 (1.0596;1.2202)*** 0.6712 (0.6546;0.6877)
 Model with HbA1c-CV 3.4154 (1.6495;7.0718)*** 0.6709 (0.6544;0.6874)
 Model with HVS 1.0015 (0.9995;1.0035) 0.6680 (0.6511;0.6850)
 Model with HbA1c-meanoverall 1.0918 (1.0359;1.1507)** 0.6715 (0.6550;0.6879)
 Model with HbA1c-meanyearly 1.0797 (1.0287;1.1333)** 0.6737 (0.6572;0.6901)
 Model with HbA1c-meanyearly + HVS   0.6727 (0.6557;0.6896)
 HbA1c-meanyearly 1.0830 (1.0204;1.1495)**  
 HVS 1.0003 (0.9980;1.0026)  
 Model with HbA1c-index (as continuous variable) 1.0649 (1.0290;1.1020)*** 0.6741 (0.6579;0.6903)
2nd part of analyses: comparative predictive ability of various HbA1c variability and mean measures for MVD risk, independent of baseline glycemic control [HbA1c-index, as dichotomous variable at a cut-off of 7.5% (58 mmol/mol)]b
 HbA1c-SD 1.1153 (1.0312;1.2063)** 0.6734 (0.6569;0.6899)
 HbA1c-CV 2.8119 (1.2766;6.1941)* 0.6733 (0.6568;0.6898)
 HVS 1.0006 (0.9985;1.0027) 0.6709 (0.6540;0.6878)
 HbA1c-meanoverall 1.0614 (0.9982;1.1287) 0.6727 (0.6563;0.6891)
 HbA1c-meanyearly 1.0532 (0.9939;1.1160) 0.6740 (0.6576;0.6905)
 HbA1c-meanyearly + HVS   0.6731 (0.6562;0.6901)
 HbA1c-meanyearly 1.0590 (0.9907;1.1320)  
 HVS 1.0001 (0.9979;1.0024)  
Sensitivity analyses: comparative predictive ability of various HbA1c variability and mean measures for MVD risk, independent of baseline glycemic control [HbA1c-index, as dichotomous variable at a cut-off of 8.0% (64 mmol/mol)]b
 HbA1c-SD 1.1089 (1.0222;1.2030)* 0.6735 (0.6570;0.6901)
 HbA1c-CV 2.6340 (1.1665;5.9477)* 0.6735 (0.6569;0.6900)
 HVS 1.0004 (0.9983;1.0025) 0.6709 (0.6540;0.6878)
 HbA1c-meanoverall 1.0519 (0.9844;1.1194) 0.6724 (0.6888;0.6560)
 HbA1c-meanyearly 1.0461 (0.9875;1.1083) 0.6740 (0.6575;0.6905)
 HbA1c-meanyearly + HVS   0.6732 (0.6563;0.6902)
 HbA1c-meanyearly 1.0516 (0.9841;1.1237)  
 HVS 1.0000 (0.9977;1.0023)  
  1. HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, HR hazard ratio, MVD microvascular disease, HbA1c-SD the standard deviation of HbA1c, HbA1c-CV the coefficient of variation of HbA1c, HSV HbA1c variability score, HbA1c-meanoverall the mean of HbA1c values from the index date until the end of follow-up, including the index date, HbA1c-meanyearly the annual averages of HbA1c values from each year during follow-up, including the index date, HbA1c-index the first HbA1c record taken at National Cheng Kung University Hospital
  2. p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001
  3. aIn the first part of the analyses, the individual Cox models were adjusted for a total of 13 covariates, including patients’ demographics, biomarkers, comorbidities and treatments (which were significantly associated with MVD risk and shown in Supplementary Table 2) and MVD history
  4. bIn the second part of the analyses, the baseline HbA1c level was treated as one of the covariates adjusted for in the Cox models, in addition to the 13 covariates adjusted for in the first part of the analyses