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Table 3 Effects of tofogliflozin on intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries after adjusting for traditional CV risk factors and/or administration of drugs

From: Tofogliflozin does not delay progression of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes: a prospective, randomized, open-label, parallel-group comparative study

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Common mean IMT
 Week 52 0.003 (− 0.013, 0.018) 0.001 (− 0.014, 0.017) 0.002 (− 0.014, 0.018) 0.002 (− 0.014, 0.017)
 Week 104 0.008 (− 0.012, 0.028) 0.007 (− 0.013, 0.027) 0.008 (− 0.012, 0.028) 0.007 (− 0.013, 0.027)
Right maximum IMT
 Week 52 0.022 (− 0.010, 0.054) 0.019 (− 0.013, 0.051) 0.021 (− 0.011, 0.053) 0.021 (− 0.011, 0.053)
 Week 104 0.030 (− 0.007, 0.066) 0.027 (− 0.010, 0.063) 0.028 (− 0.008, 0.065) 0.029 (− 0.007, 0.065)
Left maximum IMT
 Week 52 − 0.026 (− 0.077, 0.026) − 0.029 (− 0.081, 0.023) − 0.027 (− 0.079, 0.025) − 0.028 (− 0.080, 0.024)
 Week 104 − 0.006 (− 0.062, 0.050) − 0.009 (− 0.065, 0.047) − 0.007 (− 0.063, 0.049) − 0.008 (− 0.064, 0.048)
  1. Treatment effect (tofogliflozin—conventional treatment) is expressed as mean change (95% CI). Differences in delta change in IMT from baseline at 52 and 104 weeks between groups at each point (Treatment effect) were analyzed with mixed effects model for repeated measures. *P < 0.05, #P < 0.01, §P < 0.001. Model 1: Treatment group, week, interactions between treatment groups and week, body mass index, HbA1c, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglyceride and systolic blood pressure were included as fixed effects. Model 2: Model 1 plus smoking, DPP-4 inhibitors, pioglitazone, angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin II receptor blocker, statin and anti-platelets were included as fixed effects. Model 3: Model 1 plus smoking, hypoglycemic agents, angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin II receptor blocker, statin and anti-platelets were included as fixed effects. Model 4: Model 1 plus smoking, hypoglycemic agents, antihypertensive agents, statins, and antiplatelets were included as fixed effects