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Table 1 Baseline characteristics according to second-line therapy in addition to metformin

From: Add-on therapy in metformin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes at moderate cardiovascular risk: a nationwide study

  DPP-4 inhibitors GLP-1 receptor agonists SGLT-2 inhibitors Sulfonylurea Insulin p value
Number of patients 15,426 (33%) 13,148 (28%) 2343 (5%) 8917 (19%) 7152 (15%)  
Male 9160 (59%) 7403 (56%)b 1398 (60%) 5473 (61%) 4480 (63%)b  
Age 62.4 (± 11.9) 58.0 (± 11.2) 60.2 (± 11.3) 59.6 (± 12.0) 61.2 (± 13.2) < 0.0001
Years in metformin monotherapy 5.1 (± 4.0)   6.5 (± 4.5)  7.2 (± 5.1) 3.0 (± 3.0)  4.7 (± 4.4)  < 0.0001
Follow-up (years) 1.8 (± 0.4) 1.9 (± 0.3) 1.4 (± 0.6) 1.8 (± 0.4) 1.7 (± 0.5) < 0.0001
Cardiovascular riska
 Moderate 11,370 (74%) 8423 (64%)b 1489 (64%)b 7401 (83%)b 5007 (70%)b  
 High 1461 (9%) 2157 (16%)b 563 (24%)b 233 (3%)b 758 (11%)  
 Very high 2595 (17%) 2568 (20%)b 291 (12%)b 1283 (14%)b 1387 (19%)b  
Medical history
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 945 (6%) 920 (7%) 113 (5%) 568 (6%) 652 (9%)b  
 Hypertension 6145 (40%) 6523 (50%)b 841 (36%)b 3162 (35%)b 3160 (44%)b  
 Atrial fibrillation 1409 (9%) 1106 (8%) 121(5%)b 757 (8%) 741 (10%)  
 Cancer 2125 (14%) 1630 (12%)b 232 (10%)b 1133 (13%) 1373 (19%)b  
 Thyroid disease 356 (2%) 386 (3%) 57 (2%) 183 (2%) 194 (3%)  
 Renal disease 1245 (8%) 1390 (11%)b 109 (5%)b 477 (5%)b 772 (11%)b  
 Ischemic heart disease 1993 (13%) 2089 (16%)b 249 (11%)b 1013 (11%)b 1008 (14%)  
 Peripheral arterial disease 378 (2%) 384 (3%) 37 (2%) 175 (2%) 290 (4%)  
Pharmacotherapy
 Statin 10,902 (71%) 11,758 (89%)b 1477 (63%)b 6139 (69%) 4648 (65%)b  
 ACE-I/ARB 9630 (62%) 9120 (69%)b 1277 (55%)b 5458 (61%) 4284 (60%)b  
 Spironolactone 933 (6%) 1201 (9%)b 90 (4%)b 546 (6%) 628 (9%)b  
 Thiazide 3096 (20%) 3173 (24%)b 304 (13%)b 1797 (20%) 1484 (21%)  
 Calcium channel blockers 5354 (35%) 5389 (41%)b 622 (27%)b 2973 (33%) 2460 (34%)  
 Beta blockers 4276 (28%) 4076 (31%)b 503 (21%)b 2332 (26%) 1961 (27%)  
 Clopidogrel 1048 (7%) 988 (8%) 101 (4%)b 521 (6%) 531 (7%)  
 Digoxin 567 (4%) 370 (3%)b 30 (1%)b 317 (4%) 335 (5%)  
 Acetylsalicylic acid 5472 (35%) 5942 (45%)b 645 (28%)b 2844 (32%) 2623 (37%)b  
 Furosemide 2739 (18%) 3162 (24%)b 259 (11%)b 1458 (16%) 1728 (24%)b  
  1. Data is n(%) or mean (SD)
  2. ACE-I Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, GLP-1 RA glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists, SGLT-2 sodium–glucose transporter 2 inhibitor, DPP-4 dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitor
  3. acardiovascular risk was assed according to EASD/ESC guidelines within the limitation of the registries. DPP-4 is used as reference for all comparisons
  4. bMarks values which are significantly different from DPP-4 inhibitors