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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study patients

From: The longitudinal association of remnant cholesterol with cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes and pre-diabetes

Variables Overall (N = 4331) NG (N = 776) Pre-DM (N = 1163) DM (N = 2392) p-value
Age, years 58.32 ± 12.29 54.93 ± 9.91 59.55 ± 17.36 58.82 ± 9.50 < 0.001
Male, n (%) 3078 (71.1) 594 (76.5) 802 (69.0) 1682 (70.3) 0.001
BMI, kg/(m2) 25.85 ± 3.10 25.34 ± 3.12 25.83 ± 3.10 26.23 ± 3.03 < 0.001
Family history of CAD, n (%) 608 (14.0) 128 (16.5) 152 (13.1) 328 (13.7) 0.082
Smoking, n (%) 2343 (54.1) 412 (53.1) 636 (54.7) 1317 (55.1) 0.003
Drinking, n (%) 1425 (32.9) 273 (35.2) 363 (31.2) 789 (33.0) 0.189
Hypertension, n (%) 2845 (65.7) 494 (63.7) 746 (64.1) 1605 (67.1) 0.058
FPG, mmol/L 6.37 ± 1.99 4.79 ± 0.42 6.62 ± 2.12 6.77 ± 1.93 0.006
HbA1C,  % 6.67 ± 1.22 5.37 ± 0.23 6.02 ± 0.25 7.40 ± 1.31 0.002
TC, mmol/L 4.08 ± 1.05 4.01 ± 1.01 4.04 ± 1.04 4.11 ± 1.06 0.02
HDL-C, mmol/L 1.06 ± 0.29 1.07 ± 0.31 1.04 ± 0.28 1.06 ± 0.29 0.033
Non-HDL-C, mmol/L 2.89 (2.3–3.59) 2.78 (2.21–3.53) 2.88 (2.34–3.57) 2.92 (2.31–3.64) 0.013
LDL-C, mmol/L 2.44 ± 0.89 2.38 ± 0.87 2.43 ± 0.87 2.46 ± 0.91 0.081
TG, mmol/L 1.46 (1.09–2.02) 1.36 (0.99–1.89) 1.46 (1.12–2.02) 1.50 (1.11–2.06) 0.002
CRC, mmol/L 0.52 (0.36–0.73) 0.48 (0.34–0.68) 0.52 (0.36–0.73) 0.54 (0.37–0.75) 0.001
MRC, mmol/L 0.50 (0.36–0.69) 0.47 (0.34–0.66) 0.48 (0.36–0.67) 0.52 (0.37–0.71) < 0.001
Lp(a), mg/dL 15.10 (6.72–36.12) 14.92 (6.91–35.71) 14.86 (6.42–34.04) 15.35 (6.87–37.35) 0.334
ApoA1, g/L 1.33 ± 0.29 1.32 ± 0.31 1.33 ± 0.28 1.33 ± 0.29 0.685
ApoB, g/L 0.91 ± 0.29 0.89 ± 0.28 0.91 ± 0.27 0.91 ± 0.30 0.356
HsCRP, mg/L 1.36 (0.74–2.87) 1.09 (0.62–2.36) 1.41 (0.77–2.96) 1.45 (0.77–3.06) 0.001
Baseline statin use, n (%) 2621 (60.5) 457 (58.9) 681 (58.6) 1483 (62.0) 0.085
Baseline ezetimibe use, n (%) 463 (10.7) 76 (9.8) 120 (10.3) 267 (11.2) 0.502
Follow-up statin, n (%) 4201 (97.0) 745 (96.0) 1132 (97.3) 2324 (97.2) 0.323
Antidiabetic drug
 OADs, n (%) 1468 (33.9) 1468 (61.4)
 Insulin, n (%) 789 (18.2) 789 (33.0)
  1. Data are expressed as the mean value ± SD, median with 25th and 75th or number (%)
  2. NG, normoglycemia; DM, diabetes mellitus; BMI, body mass index; CAD, coronary artery disease; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; TC, total cholesterol; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TG, triglyceride; CRC, calculated remnant cholesterol; MRC, measured remnant cholesterol; Lp(a), lipoprotein (a); ApoA1, apolipoprotein A 1; ApoB, apolipoprotein B; hsCRP, high sensitivity C-reactive protein; OADs, Oral antidiabetic agents