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Table 1 Comparison of glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP1RA) cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs)

From: Indirect comparison of glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists regarding cardiovascular safety and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: network meta-analysis

StudyDesignMedicationsSample size
Male sex
N (%)
Age, years
Mean (SD)
Median follow-up
Duration of diabetes, years
Mean (SD)
HbA1c, % Mean (SD)Existence of CVD
N (%)
Statin use
N (%)
SGLT-2i use
N (%)
ELIXARandomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialLixisenatide once daily vs placebo60684207 (69)59.9 (9.7)b2.19.2 (8.2)b7.7 (1.3)b6068 (100)5627 (92.7)NA
LEADERRandomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialLiraglutide once daily vs placebo93406003 (64)64.2 (7.2)b3.812.8 (8.0)b8.7 (1.6)b7598 (81)6741 (72.2)NA
SUSTAIN-6Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialSemaglutide once weekly vs placebo32972002 (61)64.6 (7.4)2.113.9 (8.1)8.7 (1.5)2735 (83)c2399 (72.8)5 (0.2)
EXSCELRandomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialExenatide once weekly vs placebo14,7529148 (62)62.7 (3.6)d3.212.3 (3.2)d8.1 (0.5)d10,782 (73)10,836 (73.5)77 (0.9)
HARMONYRandomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialAlbiglutide once weekly vs placebo94636569 (69)64.1 (8.7)b1.614.1 (8.6)b8.7 (1.5)b6678 (71)7955 (84.1)575 (6.1)
REWINDRandomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialDulaglutide once weekly vs placebo99015312 (53.7)66.2 (6.5)5.410.5 (7.3)b7.3 (1.1)b3114 (31)6547 (66.1)3 (0.0)
PIONEER-6Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialSemaglutide once dailya vs placebo31832176 (68.4)66 (7.0)1.314.9 (8.5)8.2 (1.6)2695 (85)c2712 (85.2)e305 (9.6)
  1. ELIXA the evaluation of lixisenatide in acute coronary syndrome trial; LEADER the liraglutide effect and action in diabetes evaluation of cardiovascular outcome results trial; SUSTAIN-6 the preapproval trial to evaluate cardiovascular and other long-term outcomes with semaglutide in subjects with type 2 diabetes; EXSCEL the exenatide study of cardiovascular event lowering; HARMONY a long term, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study to determine the effect of albiglutide, when added to standard blood glucose lowering therapies, on major cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus; CVD cardiovascular disease; SD standard deviation; HbA1c glycated hemoglobin
  2. aOral semaglutide
  3. bData retrieved from the treatment arm
  4. cPresented in the trial as total of CVD and/or chronic kidney disease
  5. dEstimated based on the median range, and the sample size
  6. ePresented in the trial as lipid lowering agents in general