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Table 2 Comparison of AS patients with concomitant type 2 DM stratified according to glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c)

From: Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is associated with the severity of aortic stenosis in patients with concomitant type 2 diabetes

VariablePatients with DM and HbA1c > 7% (n = 24)DM and HbA1c ≤ 7% (n = 26)p-value
Age, years74 [70–76]70 [66–73]0.12
Male, n (%)13 (54.2)18 (69.3)0.38
BMI, kg/m230.4 [26.6–31.2]32.2 [28.7–34.5]0.30
Risk factors, n (%)
 Arterial hypertension24 (100)26 (100)0.99
 Hypercholesterolaemia7 (29.2)3 (11.5)0.16
 Current smoking2 (8.3)6 (23.1)0.25
Medications, n (%)
 Beta-blockers21 (87.5)26 (100)0.10
 Acetylsalicylic acid19 (79.2)21 (80.8)0.99
 ACE inhibitors22 (91.7)23 (88.5)0.99
 Statins21 (87.5)25 (96.2)0.34
 Insulin14 (58.3)0< 0.0001
 Metformin10 (41.7)26 (100)< 0.0001
Echocardiographic parameters
 Mean gradient, mmHg61 [46–67]44 [41–50]0.003
 Maximum gradient, mmHg95 [72–109]64 [58–77]<0.00001
 LVEF, %60 [55–65]60 [58–64]0.98
 AVA, cm20.65 [0.56–0.80]0.85 [0.8–0.9]< 0.0001
Laboratory investigation
 Creatinine, µmol/L91 [88–101]79 [73–99]0.19
 hsCRP, mg/L1.0 [1.0–2.0]1.0 [1.0–2.0]0.53
 Glucose, mmol/L6.8 [6.2–8.4]6.4 [5.5–7.5]0.21
 Insulin, µIU/mL16.2 [12.4–23.3]16.3 [12.4–23.4]0.89
 Fructosamine, µmol/L271 [250–304]259 [231–266]0.04
 Valvular AGEs, %23.3 [17.5–28.1]10.8 [9.3–13.5]< 0.00001
 Valvular RAGE, %8.1 [6.6–8.5]5.7 [4.8–7.7]0.015
 Plasma AGEs, ng/mL9.3 [8.5–12.0]9.6 [8.6–10.4]0.55
 Plasma sRAGE, pg/mL1977 [1596–2455]1988 [1517–2613]0.70
  1. Data presented as numbers (percentages), mean ± SD or medians [interquartile range]. Categorical variables were analyzed by the Chi square test. The Mann–Whitney U or Student tests were used to compare differences between groups
  2. AGEs advanced glycation end products, RAGE receptor for AGEs, for abbreviations see Table 1