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Table 2 Cox Proportional Hazards Analysis for Cardiovascular Events according to Peripheral Endothelial Dysfunction (PED)

From: Peripheral arterial endothelial dysfunction predicts future cardiovascular events in diabetic patients with albuminuria: a prospective cohort study

  Events, n (%) Unadjusted Model 1 Model 2
No PED (n = 44) PED (n = 105) P* HR (95% CI) P HR (95% CI) P HR (95% CI) P
Primary outcome 1 (2.3) 11 (10.5) 0.093 4.62 (0.60, 35.79) 0.143 11.49 (1.16, 114.24) 0.037 10.95 (1.00, 119.91) 0.050
Secondary outcome 4 (9.1) 33 (31.4) 0.004 3.45 (1.22, 9.75) 0.019 3.85 (1.31, 11.29) 0.014 4.12 (1.37, 12.41) 0.012
Acute coronary event 1 (2.3) 9 (8.6) 0.161 3.79 (0.48, 29.88) 0.207 9.24 (0.90, 95.36) 0.062 8.05 (0.64, 101.10) 0.106
Stroke 0 2 (1.9) 0.357 0.594 0.983 0.965
Heart failure 0 3 (2.9) 0.257 0.498 0.953 0.858
CKD1 4 (9.1) 23 (21.9) 0.064 2.16 (0.74, 6.26) 0.157 2.17 (0.72, 6.61) 0.171 3.26 (1.01, 10.50) 0.048
  1. PED was defined as RHI < 1.67. Primary outcome was composed of 3-point major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE); secondary outcome was a composite of 3-point MACE, hospitalization for heart failure, or chronic kidney disease (CKD)
  2. Model 1: adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, HbA1c, LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, proteinuria, duration of diabetes, and premedical history of ischemic events
  3. Model 2: adjusted for systolic blood pressure, baseline e-GFR, anti-platelet agents, and smoking history in addition to Model 1
  4. 1CKD progression defined as decrease from baseline in eGFR by 30% or more to an eGFR of less than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2, or an eGFR of less than 30 mL/min per 1.73 m2 during the follow-up period
  5. *Comparison the number of events between those with and without PED