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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics according to peripheral endothelial dysfunction (PED)

From: Peripheral arterial endothelial dysfunction predicts future cardiovascular events in diabetic patients with albuminuria: a prospective cohort study

  Total (n = 149) No PED (n = 44) PED (n = 105) P1
 Age, year 61.8 ± 9.2 59.4 ± 9.9 62.8 ± 8.7 0.043
 Men, n (%) 79 (53.0) 23 (52.3) 56 (53.3) 0.906
 Duration of DM, years 12.0 (7.0–17.0) 11.0 (7.0–16.0) 13.0 (7.5–18.5) 0.309
 BMI, kg/m2 26.1 (24.1–28.0) 26.9 (24.6–28.4) 26.0 (23.9–27.5) 0.087
 SBP, mmHg 130.4 ± 15.4 134.4 ± 15.2 128.8 ± 15.2 0.042
 DBP, mmHg 77.2 ± 10.6 80.2 ± 12.7 75.9 ± 9.3 0.045
 Hypertension, n (%) 134 (89.9) 39 (88.6) 95 (90.5) 0.733
 HbA1c,  % 7.2 (6.7–7.8) 7.1 (6.8–7.5) 7.2 (6.7–7.9) 0.636
 LDL cholesterol, mg/dL 81.0 (68.5–98.0) 81.0 (69.0–97.8) 80.0 (67.0–94.0) 0.499
 HDL cholesterol, mg/dL 44.0 (37.0–52.0) 43.5 (36.3–55.0) 44.0 (37.0–50.5) 0.528
 Triglyceride, mg/dL 125.0 (88.0–176.5) 108.0 (78.5–156.3) 132.0 (95.5–182.5) 0.057
 hsCRP, mg/L 0.6 (0.3–1.4) 0.7 (0.4–1.3) 0.6 (0.3–1.6) 0.850
 eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 79.1 (62.2–92.9) 83.8 (69.1–92.7) 77.8 (61.4–93.0) 0.295
  eGFR ≥ 90, n (%) 46 (30.9) 14 (31.8) 32 (30.5) 0.583
  eGFR 60–89, n (%) 77 (51.7) 24 (54.5) 53 (50.5)  
  eGFR 30–59, n (%) 26 (17.4) 6 (13.6) 20 (19.0)  
 ACR, mg/g 95.2 (49.9–235.3) 92.4 (50.7–210.5) 97.5 (45.0–251.5) 0.867
 Overt proteinuria, n (%) 32 (21.5) 9 (20.5) 23 (21.9) 0.844
 Diabetic retinopathy
  No 65 (47.4) 21 (51.2) 44 (45.8) 0.645
  NDPR 44 (32.1) 12 (29.3) 32 (33.3)  
  PDR 28 (20.4) 8 (19.5) 20 (20.8)  
 Current smoker, n (%) 47 (31.5) 10 (22.7) 37 (35.2) 0.134
 ARB or ACEI, n (%) 114 (80.3) 34 (79.1) 80 (80.8) 0.811
 CCB, n (%) 65 (45.8) 22 (51.2) 43 (43.4) 0.396
 BB, n (%) 15 (10.6) 7 (16.3) 8 (8.1) 0.144
 Statin, n (%) 128 (85.9) 37 (81.8) 93 (87.6) 0.545
  No statin 19 (12.8) 7 (15.9) 12 (11.4) 0.746
  Low intensity 26 (17.4) 4 (9.1) 22 (21.0)  
  Moderate intensity 102 (68.5) 32 (72.7) 70 (66.7)  
  High intensity 2 (1.3) 1 (2.3) 1 (1.0)  
 Anti-platelet, n (%) 69 (46.3) 14 (31.8) 55 (52.4) 0.022
 Anti-diabetic drugs
  Metformin 140 (94.0) 41 (93.2) 99 (94.3) 0.796
  SGLT2 inhibitors 9 (6.0) 4 (9.1) 5 (4.8) 0.312
  SU or insulin 120 (80.5) 32 (72.7) 88 (83.3) 0.119
 Previous IHD, n (%) 4 (2.7) 0 4 (3.8) 0.189
 Previous stoke, n (%) 4 (2.7) 2 (4.5) 2 (1.9) 0.369
  1. PED was defined as RHI < 1.67. All values are expressed in mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range) for continuous variables and proportions (%) for categorical variables
  2. DM, diabetes mellitus; BMI, body mass index; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; CRP, c-reactive protein; eGFR, estimated Glomerular filtration rate; ACR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio; NPDR, non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy; PDR, proliferative diabetic retinopathy; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; ACEI, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; CCB, calcium channel blocker; BB, beta-blocker; SGLT2, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2; GLP1-RA, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor analogue; SU, sulfonylurea; IHD, ischemic heart disease
  3. 1Comparison between those with and without PED using Mann-Whitney test, independent t test and chi-square test