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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population according to bodyweight variability

From: High variability in bodyweight is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a nationwide cohort study

  Total (n = 670,797) Reference bodyweight variability group (Q1–4) (n = 536,459) High bodyweight variability group (Q5) (n = 134,338)
Age, years 57.80 ± 11.47 57.55 ± 11.15 58.79 ± 12.65
 30–39 years 45433 (6.77) 33665 (6.28) 11768 (8.76)
 40–64 years 436588 (65.08) 359809 (67.07) 76779 (57.15)
 ≥ 65 years 188776 (28.14) 142985 (26.65) 45791 (34.09)
Male 435633 (64.94) 357633 (66.67) 78000 (58.06)
Number of oral anti-diabetic medicationa
 0 226812 (33.81) 186815 (34.82) 39997 (29.77)
 1 139300 (20.77) 110250 (20.55) 29050 (21.62)
 2 195051 (29.08) 154610 (28.82) 40441 (30.1)
 3 or more 109634 (16.34) 84784 (15.80) 24850 (18.50)
 Insulin use 51712 (7.71) 36711 (6.84) 15001 (11.17)
 Hypertension 381019 (56.80) 303865 (56.64) 77154 (57.43)
 Dyslipidemia 255584 (38.10) 204328 (38.09) 51256 (38.15)
 Decreased renal function (eGFR < 60 mL/min) 76556 (11.43) 58987 (11.01) 17569 (13.09)
Smoking status
 Non-smoker 364796 (54.38) 286199 (53.35) 78597 (58.51)
 Ex-smoker 139872 (20.85) 115510 (21.53) 24362 (18.13)
 Current smoker 166129 (24.77) 134750 (25.12) 31379 (23.36)
Drinking status
 Non-drinker 371857 (55.44) 287962 (53.68) 83895 (62.45)
 Mild drinker 236249 (35.22) 196699 (36.67) 39550 (29.44)
 Heavy drinker 62691 (9.35) 51798 (9.66) 10893 (8.11)
Regular exercise 159100 (23.72) 130269 (24.28) 28831 (21.46)
Low income 157722 (23.51) 124951 (23.29) 32771 (24.39)
Health examination
 Body weight, kg 66.52 ± 11.29 67.03 ± 10.92 64.49 ± 12.45
 Height, cm 162.95 ± 9.07 163.27 ± 8.92 161.66 ± 9.53
 Body mass index, kg/m2 24.97 ± 3.14 25.07 ± 3.01 24.57 ± 3.59
 Waist circumference, cm 85.44 ± 8.14 85.65 ± 7.94 84.63 ± 8.88
 SBP, mmHg 129 ± 15 129 ± 15 128 ± 16
 DBP, mmHg 79 ± 9 79 ± 10 78 ± 10
 Fasting glucose, mg/dL 143 ± 43 142 ± 41 144 ± 50
 Total cholesterol, mg/dL 195.54 ± 40.63 195.92 ± 40.28 194.04 ± 41.95
 HDL-cholesterol, mg/dL 51.63 ± 21.34 51.47 ± 21.35 52.28 ± 21.26
 LDL-cholesterol, mg/dL 110.73 ± 44.88 110.85 ± 44.70 110.23 ± 45.58
 Triglycerideb, mg/dL 146.24 (146.04–146.44) 148.26 (148.03–148.49) 138.45 (138.02–138.87)
Weight variability indices
 SD, kg 2.02 ± 1.49 1.49 ± 0.71 4.15 ± 1.85
 CV,  % 3.07 ± 2.26 2.23 ± 1.02 6.41 ± 2.72
 VIM,  % 1.98 ± 1.45 1.44 ± 0.65 4.11 ± 1.74
 ASV, kg 2.31 ± 1.81 1.73 ± 0.95 4.63 ± 2.47
  1. Q, quintile; S(D)BP, Systolic (Diastolic) blood pressure; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate by Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation; SD, standard deviation; CV, coefficient of variation; VIM, variability independent of mean; ASV, average successive variability
  2. aOf 6 types of oral medication: sulfonylurea, metformin, meglitinides, thiazolidinediones, DPP4 inhibitor, alpha-glucosidase inhibitor
  3. bGeometric mean (95% CI) due to data not following normal distribution