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Table 3 Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of ischemic stroke stratified by age, sex, and comorbidities between the pioglitazone and non-pioglitazone groups

From: Pioglitazone for primary stroke prevention in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors: a retrospective study

VariablesNon-pioglitazone user (n = 6539)Pioglitazone user (n = 6539)Crude HR (95% CI)Adjusted HR (95% CI)p for interaction
EventPYIREventPYIR
All17027,6826.1413629,2684.650.75 (0.60–0.90)**0.78 (0.62–0.95)* 
Age group (years)0.11
 < 454610,4454.402310,8572.120.48 (0.29–0.79)**0.50 (0.30–0.82)**
 45–645286636.004596594.660.77 (0.52–1.16)0.76 (0.51–1.14)
 ≥ 657285738.406887527.770.90 (0.65–1.29)0.89 (0.64–1.25)
Gender0.58
 Female7314,1245.176314,9814.210.81 (0.57–1.13)0.85 (0.30–1.20)
 Male9713,5577.157314,2875.110.71 (0.52–0.96)*0.68 (0.20–0.92)*
Comorbidity0.16
 Heart failure
  No15626,5555.8713028,0344.640.78 (0.62–0.99)*0.79 (0.2–1.01)
  Yes14112612.43612344.860.38 (0.15–0.96)*0.38 (0.14–1.03)
Arrhythmia0.63
 No15224,9006.1012426,3504.710.76 (0.60–0.95)*0.76 (0.60–0.97)*
 Yes1827816.471229184.110.67 (0.32–1.41)0.89 (0.41–1.95)
Chronic kidney disease0.57
 No15424,9986.1612626,5004.750.76 (0.61–0.97)*0.77 (0.61–0.98)*
 Yes1626835.961027683.610.60 (0.27–1.32)0.51 (0.22–1.21)
Hypertension0.59
 No2877373.622580273.110.87 (0.51–1.51)0.87 (0.50–1.52)
 Yes14219,9447.1211121,2415.230.72 (0.57–0.93)*0.74 (0.57–0.95)*
Hyperlipidemia0.54
 No5675187.454673886.230.83 (0.56–1.24)0.83 (0.55–1.24)
 Yes11420,1635.659021,8804.110.71 (0.54–0.94)**0.72 (0.54–0.96)*
 Number of risk factor0.36
 17213,3485.396113,3914.560.84 (0.60–1.19)0.85 (0.60–1.20)
 29814,3336.847515,8774.720.68 (0.50–0.92)*0.70 (0.52–0.95)*
Number of hypertensive agents0.23
 ≤ 14488204.993990024.330.87 (0.57–1.35)0.86 (0.55–1.35)
 23660585.943561315.710.95 (0.59–1.51)0.93 (0.57–1.50)
 ≥ 39012,8027.036214,1344.390.61 (0.44–0.85)**0.64 (0.46–0.89)**
Number of oral antidiabetic agents0.14
 ≤  13946668.361745633.730.44 (0.25–0.79)**0.41 (0.23–0.75)**
 28415,3975.467415,1254.890.46 (0.89–1.21)0.91 (0.66–1.25)
 33360525.453778734.700.84 (0.52–1.25)0.89 (0.55–1.42)
≥ 41415668.94817064.690.52 (0.22–1.24)0.56 (0.22–1.43)
  1. HR adjusted for age, sex, heart failure, arrhythmia, chronic kidney disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hypertensive agents, lipid-lowering agents, anti-platelet agents, and oral glucose-lowering agents
  2. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01