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Table 3 Multivariable adjusted differences of right ventricle structure and function between individuals with (pre)diabetes, as compared to individuals with normal glucose metabolism

From: Associations of (pre)diabetes with right ventricular and atrial structure and function: the Maastricht Study

Variable Model NGM Prediabetes T2DM P for trend
B (95% CI) B (95% CI)
Right atrium
 RA volume index (SD)a 1 Ref − 0.39 (− 0.58; − 0.21) − 0.52 (− 0.68; − 0.36) < 0.01
  2 Ref − 0.32 (− 0.51; − 0.13) − 0.39 (− 0.57; − 0.21) < 0.01
  3 Ref − 0.26 (− 0.45; − 0.07) − 0.29 (− 0.48; − 0.09) < 0.01
Right ventricle, structure
 RV diameter (SD)a 1 Ref − 0.12 (− 0.31; 0.08) − 0.20 (− 0.37; − 0.04) 0.02
  2 Ref − 0.29 (− 0.49; − 0.09) − 0.49 (− 0.68; − 0.30) < 0.01
  3 Ref − 0.27 (− 0.47; − 0.07) − 0.44 (− 0.65; − 0.24) < 0.01
 RV length (SD)a 1 Ref 0.15 (− 0.04; 0.34) 0.15 (− 0.01; 0.32) * 0.06
  2 Ref − 0.02 (− 0.22; 0.17) − 0.15 (− 0.33; 0.04) 0.13
  3 Ref − 0.04 (− 0.24; 0.15) − 0.22 (− 0.42; − 0.02) 0.04
Systolic RV function
 S’ RV (SD)b 1 Ref − 0.18 (− 0.37; 0.02) * − 0.26 (− 0.44; − 0.09) < 0.01
  2 Ref − 0.21 (− 0.41; 0.00) − 0.30 (− 0.50; − 0.10) < 0.01
  3 Ref − 0.19 (− 0.39; 0.02) * − 0.29 (− 0.51; − 0.07) 0.01
Diastolic RV function
 TDI E’ RV (SD)b 1 Ref − 0.31 (− 0.50; − 0.11) − 0.36 (− 0.53; − 0.18) < 0.01
  2 Ref − 0.30 (− 0.50; − 0.10) − 0.31 (− 0.51; − 0.11) < 0.01
  3 Ref − 0.26 (− 0.47; − 0.06) − 0.26 (− 0.48; − 0.05) 0.01
 TDI A’ RV (SD)b 1 Ref − 0.32 (− 0.51; − 0.13) − 0.29 (− 0.46; − 0.12) < 0.01
  2 Ref − 0.29 (− 0.49; − 0.10) − 0.23 (− 0.42; − 0.10) 0.01
  3 Ref − 0.26 (− 0.46; − 0.07) − 0.20 (− 0.41; 0.01) * 0.04
 TDI E′/A′ ratio (SD)b 1 Ref − 0.02 (− 0.19; 0.15) − 0.07 (− 0.22; 0.08) 0.39
  2 Ref − 0.03 (− 0.20; 0.15) − 0.08 (− 0.25; 0.09) 0.35
  3 Ref − 0.02 (− 0.19; 0.16) − 0.07 (− 0.25; 0.12) 0.50
Global RV function
 Myocardial performance index RV (SD)b 1 Ref − 0.04 (− 0.23; 0.16) − 0.04 (− 0.21; 0.13) 0.63
  2 Ref − 0.06 (− 0.26; 0.15) − 0.09 (− 0.29; 0.12) 0.40
  3 Ref − 0.10 (− 0.31; 0.11) − 0.17 (− 0.39; 0.05) 0.12
  1. Model 1: adjusted for age. Model 2: adjusted for model 1 + office systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive medication, smoking status, prior cardiovascular disease, waist circumference. Model 3: adjusted for model 2 + albuminuria, eGFR, total to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, triglycerides, the use of lipid-modifying medication
  2. CI confidence interval, NGM normal glucose metabolism, RA right atrial, RV right ventricular, SD standard deviation, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, TDI tissue Doppler imaging
  3. Study population a n = 792, b n = 748
  4. P value difference prediabetes or T2DM vs NGM: * < 0.10,  < 0.05, < 0.01