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Table 2 Echocardiographic characteristics of the study population according to glucose metabolism status

From: Associations of (pre)diabetes with right ventricular and atrial structure and function: the Maastricht Study

Variable NGM (n = 426) Prediabetes (n = 142) T2DM (n = 224)
Left atrium
 LA volume index, ml/m2
  Men 30.8 [26.6–34.9] 28.9 [25.0–34.7] 29.7 [25.2–34.5]
  Women 28.6 [24.7–33.3] 28.6 [25.3–33.2] 26.3 [23.2–32.4]
 LA volume, ml
  Men 62.0 [53.3–72.4] 62.3 [50.9–72.9] 61.1 [52.4–72.0]
  Women 50.9 [43.6–59.2] 52.9 [43.6–59.2] 51.3 [42.3–59.6]
Left ventricle, structure
 LV end diastolic volume index, ml/m2
  Men 68.5 ± 12.5 65.9 ± 11.8 63.0 ± 12.3
  Women 59.1 ± 10.6 58.1 ± 11.3 57.6 ± 11.9
 LV end systolic volume index, ml/m2
  Men 27.5 ± 6.1 26.7 ± 6.2 25.9 ± 6.3
  Women 23.2 ± 4.6 23.0 ± 5.0 22.8 ± 5.3
 LV mass index, gr/m2.7
  Men 29.5 [25.3–35.1] 31.5 [27.4–35.0] 32.8 [27.0–37.5]
  Women 27.3 [24.0–31.3] 31.1 [25.5–36.7] 31.2 [27.1–34.7]
Left ventricular function
 Systolic LV function
  LV ejection fraction,  % 60.5 [58.8–62.4] 60.4 [58.8–62.0] 60.2 [57.8–61.7]
  TDI S’ septal (cm/s)a 7.5 ± 1.4 7.3 ± 1.3 7.4 ± 1.7
  TDI S’ lateral (cm/s)b 8.8 ± 2.0 8.8 ± 2.1 8.2 ± 2.0
 Diastolic LV function
  Early peak velocity (m/s) 0.68 ± 0.15 0.66 ± 0.14 0.68 ± 0.15
  Active peak velocity (m/s)c 0.66 ± 0.15 0.72 ± 0.17 0.75 ± 0.16
  E/A ratioc 1.03 [0.85–1.26] 0.89 [0.75–1.08] 0.89 [0.77–1.07]
  Deceleration time E-peak (msec) 191 ± 35 204 ± 38 202 ± 37
  Isovolumetric relaxation time (msec)d 94 ± 21 100 ± 24 94 ± 22
  S/D ratioe 1.38 ± 0.32 1.45 ± 0.36 1.46 ± 0.31
  TDI E’ septal (cm/s)b 8.3 ± 2.2 7.1 ± 1.7 7.1 ± 1.8
  TDI A’ septal (cm/s)f 9.8 ± 1.8 9.8 ± 1.7 10.0 ± 1.9
  TDI E’ lateral (cm/s)g 10.7 ± 2.7 9.5 ± 2.5 8.9 ± 2.2
  TDI A’ lateral (cm/s)h 10.6 ± 2.5 11.1 ± 2.4 11.1 ± 2.3
  E/E’-ratio averagedi 7.3 [6.2–8.7] 8.0 [6.9–9.7] 8.7 [7.6–10.1]
  Diastolic LV function (normal, indeterminate, abnormal, not specified), n (%) 175/183/42/26 (41.1/43.0/9.9/6.1) 30/79/23/10 (21.1/55.6/16.2/7.0) 44/115/40/25 (19.6/51.3/17.9/11.2)
Right atrium
 RA volume index, ml/m2
  Men 25.2 ± 7.2 22.1 ± 6.8 21.7 ± 6.2
  Women 21.3 ± 6.0 19.7 ± 5.5 18.3 ± 5.3
 RA volume, ml
  Men 48.1 [40.0–58.8] 43.4 [35.3–54.8] 43.7 [36.7–51.9]
  Women 36.0 29.7–45.1 36.0 [28.6–40.7] 33.7 [28.0–40.2]
Right ventricle, structure
 RV diameter
  Men 41.3 ± 5.2 39.9 ± 5.3 39.8 ± 4.7
  Women 35.6 ± 4.7 35.8 ± 5.6 35.0 ± 4.2
 RV length
  Men 75.8 ± 7.5 75.8 ± 7.0 75.9 ± 7.2
  Women 69.8 ± 6.6 70.3 ± 6.2 70.2 ± 7.3
Right ventricular function
 Systolic RV function
  S’ RV (cm/s)j 12.8 ± 2.4 12.4 ± 2.2 12.4 ± 2.5
  TAPSE (mm)k 23.0 ± 2.9 22.0 ± 3.6 22.3 ± 4.4
 Diastolic RV function
  E-peak velocity tricuspid flow (m/s)l 0.46 ± 0.09 0.44 ± 0.09 0.44 ± 0.08
  A-peak velocity tricuspid flow (m/s)m 0.35 ± 0.10 0.41 ± 0.07 0.41 ± 0.09
  E/A ratio tricuspid valvem 1.30 [1.12–1.58] 1.10 [0.91–1.22] 1.10 [0.90–1.26]
  TDI E’ RV (cm/s)n 11.9 ± 2.7 10.4 ± 2.7 10.5 ± 2.7
  TDI A’ RV (cm/s)o 14.6 ± 3.5 13.9 ± 3.1 14.1 ± 3.4
  E/E′-ratiok 4.3 [3.6–5.0] 4.8 [4.1–5.7] 4.6 [3.4–5.9]
 Global RV function
  Myocardial performance index RVp 0.47 ± 0.12 0.47 ± 0.12 0.48 ± 0.11
  Maximum tricuspid gradient 15.8 ± 6.2 14.7 ± 7.6 14.9 ± 7.2
Wall motion abnormalities, n yes (%)q 2 (0.5) 2 (1.4) 5 (2.3)
Valvular dysfunction (moderate or severe), n (%) 28 (6.6) 8 (5.6) 13 (5.8)
  1. Data are presented as n (%), mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range)
  2. LA left atrial, LV left ventricular, TDI tissue Doppler imaging, RA right atrial, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, RV right ventricular
  3. Numbers of missing data (if n > 10); a n = 62; b n = 63; c n = 14; d n = 26; e n = 22; f n = 72; g n = 64; h n = 73; i n = 67; j n = 70; k n = 645; l n = 644; m n = 647; n n = 71; o n = 80; p n = 74; q n = 15
  4. P value difference prediabetes or T2DM vs NGM: * < 0.10,  < 0.05,  < 0.01