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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the study population with two-dimensional echocardiography according to glucose metabolism status (n = 792)

From: Associations of (pre)diabetes with right ventricular and atrial structure and function: the Maastricht Study

Variable NGM (n = 426) Prediabetes (n = 142) T2DM (n = 224)
Demographics
 Age, years 57.3 ± 8.0 62.5 ± 7.5 62.6 ± 7.6
 Women, % 233 (54.7) 57 (40.1) 71 (31.7)
Measures of (central) obesity
 Body mass index, kg/m2 25.5 [23.2–27.8] 27.4 [25.6–29.8] 29.3 [26.2–32.2]
 Waist circumference, cm
  Men 96 [91–103] 102 [96–110] 106 [99–113]
  Women 87 [79–94] 94 [85–100] 101 [91–113]
 Waist-to hip ratioa 0.91 ± 0.08 0.97 ± 0.08 1.01 ± 0.08
Blood pressure
 Office systolic blood pressure, mmHg 131.1 ± 16.5 140.0 ± 17.2 145.0 ± 18.3
 Office diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 75.2 ± 9.7 79.3 ± 10.3 78.0 ± 9.3
 24 h average ambulatory systolic blood pressure, mmHgb 116.3 ± 10.6 121.6 ± 12.8 122.1 ± 11.5
 24 h average ambulatory diastolic blood pressure, mmHgb 73.6 ± 7.0 74.8 ± 8.0 73.4 ± 7.1
 Hypertension, % 169 (39.7) 98 (69.0) 187 (83.5)
Glucose metabolism
 Fasting glucose, mmol/L 5.2 ± 0.4 6.0 ± 0.5** 7.9 ± 2.3**
 2 h postload glucose, mmol/Lc 5.3 ± 1.2 8.2 ± 1.8** 14.0 ± 3.4**
 HbA1c, mmol/mold 37.1 ± 3.5 40.4 ± 4.2** 51.7 ± 11.2**
 HbA1c, %d 5.5 ± 0.3 5.8 ± 0.4** 6.9 ± 1.0**
Lipids
 Total cholesterol, mmol/L 5.6 ± 1.0 5.5 ± 1.2 4.5 ± 1.0
 HDL cholesterol, mmol/L
  Men 1.3 ± 0.3 1.2 ± 0.3 1.1 ± 0.3
  Women 1.7 ± 0.5 1.6 ± 0.4 1.4 ± 0.4
 Total to HDL cholesterol ratio 4.0 ± 1.3 4.3 ± 1.3* 4.0 ± 1.1
 LDL cholesterol, mmol/l 3.6 ± 0.9 3.4 ± 1.0 2.5 ± 0.9
 Triglycerides, mmol/l 1.0 [0.8–1.5] 1.4 [0.9–1.9] 1.7 [1.2–2.3]
Kidney function
 eGFR, ml/min/1.73 m2 90.8 ± 13.8 85.0 ± 14.4 85.2 ± 17.2
 Albuminuria, % 15 (3.5) 10 (7.0)* 38 (17.0)
Lifestyle
Smoking (never, former, current), % 153/198/75 (35.9/46.5/17.6) 41/85/16 (28.9/59.9/11.3)* 59/128/37 (26.3/57.1/16.5)
 Alcohol consumption (none, low, high), %e 52/226/145 (12.3/53.4/34.3) 21/70/51 (14.8/49.3/35.9) 66/109/48 (29.6/48.9/21.5)
 Moderate to vigorous physical activity, h/wkf 5.3 [3.0–8.5] 4.5 [2.0–6.8] 3.8 [1.6–6.5]
Prior cardiovascular disease, % 44 (10.3) 23 (16.2)* 56 (25.0)
Medication
 Antihypertensive medication use, % 97 (22.8) 68 (47.9) 154 (68.8)
  Ras inhibitors, % 64 (15.0) 49 (34.5) 124 (55.4)
  Beta-blockers, % 36 (8.5) 32 (22.5) 81 (36.2)
  Diuretics, % 29 (6.8) 29 (20.4) 60 (26.8)
  Calcium antagonists, % 15 (3.5) 11 (7.7) 35 (15.6)
 Diabetes medication use, % 166 (74.1)**
  Insulin, % 40 (17.9)**
  Metformin, % 151 (67.4)**
  Sulfonylureas, % 41 (18.3)**
  Thiazolidinediones, % 2 (0.9)**
  GLP-1 analogs, % 2 (0.9)**
  DPP-4 inhibitors, % 5 (2.2)**
 Lipid modifying medication use, % 68 (16.0) 54 (38.0) 166 (74.1)
  1. Data are presented as n (%), mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile rage)
  2. NGM normal glucose metabolism, T2DM type 2 diabetes, HDL high density lipoprotein, LDL low density lipoprotein, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, Ras renin-angiotensin system, GLP-1 glucagon-like peptide-1, DPP-4 dipeptidyl peptidase-4
  3. Numbers of missing data: a n = 1, b n = 70, c n = 52, d n = 3, e n = 4, f n = 108
  4. P value difference prediabetes or T2DM vs NGM: * < 0.10,  < 0.05,  < 0.01, ** not applicable