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Table 1 Baseline patient characteristics for different glucose-lowering agent groups after the matching algorithm

From: Comparative cardiovascular safety of GLP-1 receptor agonists versus other glucose-lowering agents in real-world patients with type 2 diabetes: a nationwide population-based cohort study

Characteristics GLP-1ra 1:1 matched DPP-4i GLP-1ra 1:1 matched SU GLP-1ra 1:1 matched insulin
Number of subjects 1893 1893 1829 1829 1367 1367
Age at index date (years, mean ± SD) 49.48 ± 11.61 51.78 ± 12.19 49.34 ± 11.64 51.27 ± 11.82 49.38 ± 12.06 53.07 ± 13.67a
Male at index date (%) 47.97 47.17 46.04 49.7 41.7 51.43
Diabetes durationb (years, mean ± SD) 6.18 ± 2.74 6.46 ± 2.7 5.9 ± 2.82 6.32 ± 2.74 6.37 ± 2.75 6.33 ± 2.78
Comorbidity history (%)
 Hypertension 62.60 62.07 61.73 62.66 59.77 67.08
 Hyperlipidemia 70.79 71.05 70.42 70.59 69.42 70.37
 Stroke or transient ischemic attack 4.86 5.23 4.37 6.07 5.27 5.05
 Heart failure 2.85 3.49 2.19 3.17 3.58 3.44
 Myocardial infarction 1.53 1.06 1.20 1.53 1.32 2.19
 Ischemic heart diseases 12.20 11.62 12.3 13.83 13.90 14.26
CIC category (%)
 Cancer 4.07 5.65 4.48 5.14 5.34 5.78
 Gastrointestinal 27.63 26.62 25.48 26.46 26.63 30.43
 Musculoskeletal 32.70 34.28 33.13 32.31 34.67 35.70
 Pulmonary 7.82 8.45 7.27 8.37 7.39 11.49
 Substance abuse complexity 2.54 3.06 2.41 2.62 3.00 2.49
 Mental illness 8.51 8.82 8.75 10.5 10.02 10.02
Diabetes-related complications (%)
 Retinopathy 17.91 17.38 16.79 18.48 21.58 19.09
 Nephropathy 27.21 27.63 24.93 27.23 27.58 28.75
 Neuropathy 14.37 15.27 13.61 15.36 16.83 17.56
 Peripheral vascular diseases 4.75 4.54 4.54 4.81 4.90 5.78
 Cerebrovascular diseases 3.96 4.38 3.39 5.03 3.95 4.39
 Cardiovascular diseases 14.95 14.69 14.71 17.00 16.46 18.07
 Metabolic complications 0.85 2.17 1.04 1.48 2.56 2.71
 Number of glucose-lowering agents prescribed one year before index date 3.19 3.34 3.22 3.56 3.21 3.39
Glucose-lowering agents one year before index date (MPR, mean ± SD)c
 Metformin 0.50 ± 0.43 0.50 ± 0.43 0.59 ± 0.41 0.59 ± 0.41 0.46 ± 0.43 0.46 ± 0.43
 Sulfonylurea 0.43 ± 0.43 0.43 ± 0.43 0.66 ± 0.37 0.67 ± 0.37 0.32 ± 0.41 0.32 ± 0.41
 Meglitinide 0.04 ± 0.18 0.04 ± 0.18 0.02 ± 0.10 0.02 ± 0.10 0.05 ± 0.19 0.05 ± 0.19
 Thiazolidinedione 0.12 ± 0.28 0.12 ± 0.28 0.13 ± 0.30 0.14 ± 0.30 0.08 ± 0.23 0.08 ± 0.23
 Acarbose 0.15 ± 0.31 0.15 ± 0.31 0.13 ± 0.29 0.13 ± 0.29 0.13 ± 0.28 0.13 ± 0.28
 DPP-4i 0.67 ± 0.34 0.67 ± 0.35 0.42 ± 0.42 0.42 ± 0.42 0.34 ± 0.40 0.34 ± 0.40
 Insulin 0.24 ± 0.38 0.24 ± 0.38 0.21 ± 0.36 0.21 ± 0.37 0.67 ± 0.36 0.67 ± 0.36
CVD-related medication history (%)
 Lipid-modifying agents 68.94 68.57 66.21 67.2 67.15 69.35
 α-Blockers 4.12 4.28 3.50 2.90 3.80 4.10
 β-Blockers 31.91 30.85 31.66 31.93 33.21 35.48
 Agents acting on RAAS 43.69 42.37 45.05 44.18 42.28 43.75
 Diuretics 18.28 18.01 20.01 20.07 21.36 18.36
 Calcium channel blockers 32.86 31.01 32.75 33.84 32.92 35.92
 Antiarrhythmics 1.37 1.85 1.31 1.91 1.32 2.12
 Cardiac glycosides 0.69 1.43 0.77 0.82 0.80 1.54
 Vasodilators used in cardiac diseases 8.19 9.67 7.93 9.51 9.73 10.31
 Anti-platelets 28.84 30.27 28.05 31.00 30.94 33.50
 Anti-coagulants 1.16 1.69 0.87 1.09 1.61 1.76
  1. All confounders listed above were measured in the year prior to index date, except age, gender, and diabetes duration, which were determined at index date
  2. CIC chronic illness with complexity, CVD cardiovascular disease, DPP-4i dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, GLP-1ra glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, MPR medication possession ratio, RAAS renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, SD standard deviation, SU sulfonylurea
  3. aA significant difference between GLP-1ra and insulin users, as indicated by absolute standardized mean difference > 0.2
  4. bDiabetes duration was measured as the time from the first date of type 2 diabetes diagnosis to index date
  5. cMPR was measured as the sum of prescription refill days in the year prior to index date divided by 365