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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population according to the eight groups of transition in obesity subphenotypes

From: Hospitalization for heart failure incidence according to the transition in metabolic health and obesity status: a nationwide population-based study

1st examination (2009–2010)MHNOMHOp-value
2nd examination (2013–2014)MHNOMHOMUNOMUOMHNOMHOMUNOMUO 
n4284989420,879546,422167,760252,858891,47051,148533,237 
Age (years)47.95 ± 12.2744.50 ± 11.6456.82 ± 11.6450.33 ± 12.6349.94 ± 11.8347.53 ± 11.4157.38 ± 11.4450.61 ± 12.09< 0.0001
Men [n (%)]2,197,889 (51.29)278,534 (66.18)281,416 (51.50)103,984 (61.98)165,083 (65.29)628,772 (70.53)28,823 (56.35)357,033 (66.96)< 0.0001
Current smoker [n (%)]931,072 (21.73)110,355 (26.22)115,043 (21.05)42,510 (25.34)63,074 (24.94)239,997 (26.92)11,126 (21.75)146,928 (27.55)< 0.0001
Heavy alcohol consumption [n (%)]210,834 (4.92)30,283 (7.20)33,326 (6.10)13,710 (8.17)16,638 (6.58)67,853 (7.61)3411 (6.67)48,463 (9.09)< 0.0001
Regular exercise [n (%)]2,541,420 (59.31)260,190 (61.82)293,397 (53.69)93,740 (55.88)161,106 (63.71)570,158 (63.96)27,892 (54.53)312,759 (58.65)< 0.0001
Low-income level [n (%)]837,078 (19.54)75,366 (17.91)125,579 (22.98)33,867 (20.19)51,276 (20.28)164,795 (18.49)11,868 (23.20)104,572 (19.61)< 0.0001
Body weight (kg)59.49 ± 8.3772.04 ± 8.2560.46 ± 8.4271.68 ± 9.2565.77 ± 7.7675.45 ± 9.6164.27 ± 7.9577.32 ± 11.25< 0.0001
Body mass index (kg/m2)21.98 ± 1.7225.94 ± 0.9922.86 ± 1.5026.16 ± 1.1624.01 ± 0.9527.22 ± 1.8724.22 ± 0.8228.06 ± 2.27< 0.0001
Waist circumference (cm)75.86 ± 6.6884.32 ± 5.6480.51 ± 6.3287.35 ± 5.6580.61 ± 5.6687.13 ± 6.4083.69 ± 5.5890.81 ± 6.61< 0.0001
Systolic BP (mmHg)117.44 ± 13.06121.08 ± 12.19128.34 ± 13.71129.13 ± 13.07120.18 ± 12.82122.39 ± 12.33128.46 ± 13.50129.93 ± 12.95< 0.0001
Diastolic BP (mmHg)73.52 ± 9.0976.01 ± 8.8079.50 ± 9.4980.72 ± 9.3675.20 ± 9.0376.86 ± 8.8679.58 ± 9.4381.36 ± 9.41< 0.0001
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl)92.33 ± 11.8193.34 ± 11.25102.51 ± 16.84102.15 ± 15.5893.86 ± 14.9493.84 ± 12.14103.49 ± 22.04102.76 ± 17.75< 0.0001
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)193.65 ± 33.13200.91 ± 33.71205.38 ± 41.23207.42 ± 38.75195.26 ± 33.09200.79 ± 32.87202.51 ± 40.57206.38 ± 37.89< 0.0001
Triglyceride (mg/dl)90.83 (90.79-90.88)111.53 (111.37-111.69)146.30 (146.10-146.49)164.24 (163.88-164.61)94.74 (94.56-94.91)109.10 (109.00-109.21)139.24 (138.64-139.84)157.73 (157.54-157.93)< 0.0001
HDL-C (mg/dl)58.84 ± 14.0654.54 ± 12.6651.44 ± 14.1048.87 ± 12.5656.70 ± 13.5953.95 ± 12.2051.14 ± 13.6848.95 ± 12.19< 0.0001
LDL-C (mg/dl)114.72 ± 33.77121.79 ± 33.90121.53 ± 40.13122.88 ± 38.46117.63 ± 33.02123.03 ± 33.50120.39 ± 38.89123.11 ± 37.63< 0.0001
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2)94.99 ± 52.7696.06 ± 65.8989.45 ± 45.0491.67 ± 53.0993.21 ± 54.2893.34 ± 59.9088.94 ± 47.3091.17 ± 55.65< 0.0001
ALT (U/l)20.65 ± 14.0028.31 ± 20.4825.52 ± 16.8533.28 ± 24.1922.44 ± 14.7529.07 ± 20.4625.63 ± 16.7035.15 ± 25.43< 0.0001
AST (U/l)23.46 ± 10.8925.48 ± 12.0426.56 ± 13.8528.12 ± 14.0424.13 ± 11.4926.00 ± 12.1726.17 ± 13.5428.77 ± 14.43< 0.0001
Hypertension [n (%)]466,017 (10.88)53,477 (12.71)246,919 (45.19)66,006 (39.35)40,418 (15.98)151,788 (17.03)25,130 (49.13)230,313 (43.19)< 0.0001
Dyslipidemia [n (%)]434,994 (10.15)55,018 (13.07)267,255 (48.91)61,665 (36.76)26,844 (10.62)110,729 (12.42)23,703 (46.34)185,106 (34.71)< 0.0001
  1. Values are presented as number (%), mean ± standard deviation, or geometric mean (95% confidence interval)
  2. MHNO metabolically healthy non-obesity, MHO metabolically healthy obesity, MUNO metabolically unhealthy non-obesity, MUO metabolically unhealthy obesity, BP blood pressure, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate aminotransferase